1. Geography SS 3


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Theme 1          The Earth and The Solar System       

  1. Earth’s Internal Processes
  2. Denudational Processes
  3. Weathering
  4. Mass Movements

Theme 2          Environment and Its Resources        

  1. Climatic Change

Theme 3          Regional Geography of Nigeria        


Theme 4          Economic and Human Geography   

  1. Trade
  2. Tourism.

Theme 5          Introductory Geographic Information System (GIS)

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing
  2. GIS Application












Theme 1    The Earth and The Solar System 

  1. Earth’s Internal Structure & Processes

  2. The Crust, Mantle, and Core of the Earth:

The Earth’s interior is divided into several layers. The outermost layer is called the crust, which is relatively thin and comprises both the continents (continental crust) and the ocean floors (oceanic crust). Beneath the crust lies the mantle, which is a semi-solid layer that extends to a depth of about 2,900 kilometres (1,800 miles). The mantle is responsible for the movement of tectonic plates and is divided into the upper mantle and the lower mantle. The core lies beneath the mantle and consists mainly of iron and nickel. It is divided into the outer core, which is liquid, and the inner core, which is solid due to the intense pressure.

Certainly, let’s delve deeper into the structure and properties of the Earth’s interior layers: the crust, mantle, and core.



The Earth’s crust is the outermost layer of the planet and is relatively thin compared to the other layers. It is divided into two main types: continental crust and oceanic crust.


Continental Crust:

This type of crust makes up the continents and is primarily composed of granite rocks. It’s relatively thicker (about 35-40 kilometers or 22-25 miles) and less dense than oceanic crust. Continental crust contains a wide variety of minerals and is rich in silicate minerals like feldspar and quartz.


Oceanic Crust: Oceanic crust forms the ocean floors and is mainly composed of basaltic rocks. It is thinner (around 7-10 kilometers or 4-6 miles) and denser than continental crust. Oceanic crust contains minerals like pyroxene and olivine.



Beneath the crust lies the mantle, which is a semi-solid layer that extends to a depth of approximately 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles). The mantle is composed of silicate minerals rich in iron and magnesium. It’s characterized by its plasticity, meaning it can flow over long periods of time, albeit very slowly. The mantle is divided into two major regions:


Upper Mantle:

The upper mantle is relatively rigid and extends from the base of the crust to a depth of about 660 kilometers (410 miles). The uppermost part of the upper mantle, known as the asthenosphere, is partially molten and behaves like a plastic material. This is where the convection currents responsible for the movement of tectonic plates occur.


Lower Mantle:

The lower mantle lies below the upper mantle and extends to the boundary with the Earth’s core. It is solid but capable of flowing very slowly over geological timescales. The minerals found in the lower mantle are subjected to extremely high pressure, causing them to exhibit unique properties.



The Earth’s core is the central and innermost layer, composed primarily of iron and nickel. The core is divided into two regions with distinct properties:


Outer Core:

Surrounding the solid inner core is the outer core, which is in a liquid state due to the high temperatures and pressures. The movement of liquid iron and nickel in the outer core generates the Earth’s magnetic field through a process called the geodynamo. This magnetic field plays a crucial role in shielding the Earth from harmful solar radiation.


Inner Core:

The inner core lies at the very center of the Earth and is solid due to the immense pressure, despite the high temperatures. The inner core’s solid state is maintained by the overwhelming pressure from the layers above it. It’s composed mainly of iron and nickel, and its properties have been deduced from seismic studies.


The interactions and movements within these layers drive geological processes such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the movement of tectonic plates. The Earth’s interior is a dynamic system with complex interactions between its different layers.


  1. Earth’s Shape and Effects of Gravity, Density, and Stress:

The Earth is an oblate spheroid, meaning it is mostly spherical but slightly flattened at the poles and slightly bulging at the equator due to its rotation. Gravity is the force that pulls objects toward the center of the Earth. The distribution of mass within the Earth causes variations in gravitational strength, leading to phenomena like tides. Density variations in the Earth’s interior affect the movement of materials through convection in the mantle. Stress, caused by the tectonic forces within the Earth, leads to the deformation of rocks, resulting in earthquakes, faults, and folds.

Earth’s Shape:

The Earth is not a perfect sphere; it’s an oblate spheroid. This means it’s slightly flattened at the poles and slightly bulging at the equator due to its rotation. The centrifugal force caused by the Earth’s rotation results in this flattening and bulging effect. The equatorial diameter is larger than the polar diameter.



Gravity is the force that attracts objects with mass toward each other. On Earth, gravity pulls everything toward the centre of the planet. The strength of gravity is influenced by both the mass of the object and the distance between the objects. The distribution of mass within the Earth is not uniform, which leads to variations in gravitational strength across the planet. These variations are responsible for phenomena like tides, where the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun causes the ocean’s water level to rise and fall.


Density Variations and Convection:

The Earth’s interior is not uniform in density. Variations in density arise from differences in composition and temperature. The hotter material is less dense and rises, while cooler, denser material sinks. This movement of material due to density differences is known as convection. In the mantle, convection currents play a significant role in the movement of tectonic plates. Hot material rises from the bottom of the mantle to the top, cools, and then sinks back down. This convective motion is a driving force behind plate tectonics, which leads to the movement of continents, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.


Stress and Deformation:

Stress is the force per unit area applied to a material. It can cause rocks to change shape or deform. There are different types of stress, including compression (pushing together), tension (pulling apart), and shear (sliding past each other). The movement of tectonic plates generates these stresses within the Earth’s crust. When rocks are subjected to stress that exceeds their strength, they can deform in different ways:



Faults are fractures along which there has been movement. Different types of stress lead to different types of faults, such as normal faults (associated with tensional stress) and reverse faults (associated with compressional stress).



Folds are bends or curves in rock layers caused by compressional stresses. They can form in response to the Earth’s crust being squeezed together. Anticlines are folds where the layers arch upward, while synclines are folds where the layers dip downward.


The Earth’s shape, gravity, density variations, and tectonic forces are interconnected aspects that shape the planet’s surface and drive geological processes. These processes include the movement of tectonic plates, the creation of landforms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, and more. Understanding these interactions is crucial for studying Earth’s evolution and the dynamic processes that continue to shape our world.

  1. Types of Landforms:

Landforms are physical features on the Earth’s surface. They can be categorized into various types, including mountains, valleys, plains, plateaus, hills, deserts, canyons, and more. These landforms are created through processes like erosion, deposition, tectonic activity, volcanic activity, and weathering.


Mountains are elevated landforms with significant differences in elevation between their peaks and the surrounding areas. They can be formed through tectonic processes, where tectonic plates collide and compress the crust, leading to the uplift of large landmasses. Mountains can also result from volcanic activity, where magma from within the Earth erupts onto the surface and accumulates over time.



Valleys are low-lying areas between mountains or hills. They can be created by various processes such as erosion by rivers, glaciers, or wind. River valleys, for example, are formed as rivers cut through the Earth’s surface over time, carving out channels and creating depressions.



Plains are extensive, relatively flat areas with minimal differences in elevation. They can be formed through sediment deposition by rivers, wind, or glaciers. Over time, sediments accumulate, creating flat landscapes. Coastal plains are formed by the deposition of sediment near coastlines.



Plateaus are elevated flat areas with steep sides. They can be formed by the uplift of land due to tectonic activity or by the cooling and solidification of lava flows from volcanic eruptions. Plateaus are often found at higher elevations and can have impressive landscapes.



Hills are smaller elevated landforms that are less steep than mountains. They can be formed through erosion, sediment deposition, or tectonic processes. Hills are often found in areas where the landscape has been shaped by the interaction of various geological forces.



Deserts are arid regions with minimal rainfall and sparse vegetation. They can be formed in rain shadows, which are areas on the leeward side of mountains where moist air has been depleted of its moisture by precipitation on the windward side. Deserts can also form due to geographical factors like being far from oceanic moisture sources.



Canyons are deep, narrow valleys with steep sides. They are often formed by the erosion of rivers cutting through rock over long periods. The Colorado River carving through the Grand Canyon is a famous example of canyon formation.


Volcanic Landforms:

Volcanic landforms are created by volcanic activity. These include features like volcanoes, calderas (large volcanic craters), lava plateaus, and volcanic islands. Volcanic landforms are the result of magma erupting from the Earth’s interior and solidifying on the surface.


Erosional Landforms:

Erosional landforms are shaped by the processes of erosion, where wind, water, and ice wear away the Earth’s surface. Examples include arches, hoodoos, and mesas. Water erosion can create features like gorges, river meanders, and sea cliffs.


Depositional Landforms:

Depositional landforms are created by the accumulation of sediments carried by rivers, wind, or glaciers. Examples include sand dunes, alluvial fans, deltas, and sandbars.



Landforms are the result of complex interactions between geological processes such as tectonic activity, erosion, deposition, weathering, and volcanic activity. They provide a window into the Earth’s dynamic history and showcase the ongoing changes to our planet’s surface over millions of years.


  1. Geological Maps:

Geological maps display the distribution of different types of rocks, minerals, and geological features on the Earth’s surface. These maps use symbols, colours, and contour lines to represent various geological formations. They are essential tools for understanding the geological history of an area, identifying potential resources, and planning construction projects.


  1. Earth’s Magnetic Field:

The Earth has a magnetic field that is generated by the movement of molten iron and nickel in its outer core. This geodynamo process generates a magnetic north and south pole, which are not aligned with the geographic poles. The Earth’s magnetic field plays a crucial role in protecting the planet from harmful solar radiation and helps with navigation using compasses.


  1. Plate Tectonics, Paleomagnetism, and Continental Drift:

Plate tectonics is the theory that the Earth’s lithosphere (the rigid outer layer) is divided into several large and small plates that move atop the semi-fluid asthenosphere. This movement is responsible for earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the creation of mountain ranges. Paleomagnetism studies the Earth’s past magnetic field recorded in rocks, providing evidence for continental drift. Continental drift refers to the movement of continents over time, which was proposed by Alfred Wegener and is a key component of plate tectonics.


  1. Types of Faults and Folds:

Faults are fractures in the Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred. There are several types of faults, including normal faults (caused by extensional forces), reverse faults (caused by compressional forces), and strike-slip faults (caused by horizontal shearing forces). Folds are bends or curves in rock layers caused by compressional forces. Anticlines are upward-arching folds, while synclines are downward-curving folds.


  1. Reasons for a Volcanic Eruption:

Volcanic eruptions occur when magma (molten rock), gases, and other materials escape from a volcano. This happens due to the buildup of pressure within the Earth’s crust, often caused by the movement of tectonic plates or the melting of subducted crust in a process called subduction. When the pressure becomes too high, it can lead to an explosive release of magma, ash, and gases from the volcano.


  1. Components and Epicenter of an Earthquake:

An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by the sudden release of energy stored in rocks due to tectonic forces. It has two main components: the focus (or hypocenter), which is the point within the Earth where the earthquake originates, and the epicenter, which is the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus. The severity of an earthquake is measured using the Richter scale or moment magnitude scale.


  1. Seismic Waves:

Seismic waves are vibrations that travel through the Earth as a result of earthquakes or other geological processes. There are two main types of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves include P-waves (primary or compressional waves) that travel fastest and S-waves (secondary or shear waves) that follow P-waves. Surface waves are slower and include Love waves and Rayleigh waves. Seismographs are instruments that detect and record these waves, providing information about the earthquake’s location, depth, and magnitude.






  1. Denudational Processes

Denudation refers to the process of reshaping and reducing the Earth’s surface through the actions of specific agents known as denudation agents. The term “denude” originates from the Greek language, meaning reduction, lowering, or cutting. Consequently, denudation processes are responsible for the lowering or sculpting of the Earth’s terrain.


There are four primary denudational processes, along with a fifth process that is not strictly categorized within this group. These processes include:


  1. Weathering: Weathering encompasses the decay or decomposition of rock materials in their original location. Weathering can occur through physical, chemical, or biological means.
  2. Erosion: Erosion involves the removal of weathered materials. It encompasses the detachment of debris or fragmented materials.
  3. Transportation: This process entails the movement of eroded materials away from their original location. Various agents, such as running water, wind, ice, waves, and gravity, act as transportation mediums.
  4. Deposition: Strictly speaking, deposition is not considered a denudational process. Rather, it belongs to the process of gradation rather than degradation.


Key Concepts of Weathering:

The following major concepts related to weathering are briefly explained:

  1. In situ: This term refers to the disintegration of materials in their original position without any movement.
  2. Disintegration: Disintegration refers to the detachment of materials from the parent body, involving the splitting or separation of debris or clastic materials.
  3. Expansion and contraction: This physical weathering process is caused by the heating during the day and cooling at night. Daytime heating leads to expansion, while night-time cooling induces contraction. This phenomenon is commonly observed in hot desert landscapes, where intense heating during the day and rapid cooling at night cause rock surfaces to expand and contract.
  4. Oxidation, carbonation, solution, hydrolysis: These processes are different forms of chemical reactions facilitated by water. Oxidation specifically relates to the effects of atmospheric oxygen on rocks containing iron, resulting in the conversion of ferrous (Fe2) to ferric (Fe3) ions. Oxidation often manifests as a reddish surface on materials undergoing this process. Carbonation, solution, and hydrolysis involve various chemical reactions influenced by water.
  5. Debris: Debris refers to the diverse shapes of weathered materials, also known as regolith or elastic materials.


 Definition of weather materials by source

  1. Aeolian deposits – wind-derived materials.
  2. Marine deposits – from sources in the ocean
  3. Lacustrine materials – from the lake source
  4. Fluvial materials –from source in rivers
  5. Fluvial glacial – derived from valley glaciers
  6. Glacial deposits – from sources of glaciations





  1. Weathering

Weathering refers to the process of rock disintegration and decay caused by weather forces such as frost, rain, and temperature changes. It involves the breaking down of rocks into smaller fragments due to the impact of weather and atmospheric factors. Weathering can be categorized into three types: physical, chemical, and biological weathering.


Physical/Mechanical Weathering:

This type of weathering occurs when rocks are broken down by weather forces without any alteration in their chemical composition. It occurs through three main processes:


  1. Alternate heating and cooling: This process is more prevalent in regions like deserts, which experience extreme daily temperature variations. During the day, intense heat from the sun causes the outer parts of rocks to expand more than the inner parts. At night, when temperatures drop rapidly, the outer parts contract more rapidly than the inner parts. Prolonged exposure to these temperature fluctuations can lead to three outcomes:


  1. Exfoliation: The outer layers of rocks peel off, resembling the layers of an onion. This process forms rounded features known as Exfoliation domes.


  1. Block disintegration: Rocks with well-defined joints or bedding planes break into large regular blocks.


  1. Granular disintegration: Rocks composed of different minerals, such as granite with quartz, mica, and feldspar, break into small pieces resembling large grains.


  1. Alternate wetting and drying: This process occurs in tropical regions where heavy rainfall saturates rocks, followed by rapid drying due to intense sunlight. Coastal rocks exposed to tides and waves may also undergo this process. When rocks absorb water and subsequently dry repeatedly over an extended period, stresses build up, leading to the peeling off of surface layers.


  1. Alternate freezing and thawing: In regions with significant temperature variations, commonly referred to as frost action, rocks are more susceptible to breaking down. When the temperature drops, water in cracks freezes, expanding by about 10% of its normal volume. This expansion exerts pressure on the crack walls, attempting to force the rocks apart. When the temperature rises, the water thaws. Repeated freezing and thawing widen and deepen cracks and crevices, causing the rocks to break.


Chemical Weathering:

This type of weathering involves the decomposition or decay of rocks through chemical processes, resulting in changes to the chemical composition and cohesion of the affected rocks. Major chemical weathering processes include:


  1. Solution: Some minerals, like rock salt, are soluble in water and dissolve upon contact. The rate of dissolution increases with the acidity of water. Rainwater attacking and dissolving rock salts and calcium carbonate in limestone widens cracks.


  1. Oxidation: This process occurs when a mineral compound absorbs additional oxygen. Rocks exposed to oxygen in the air or water undergo oxidation. A recognizable example is the change of ferrous iron to ferric iron, giving rocks a reddish-brown colour, commonly known as rusting.


  1. Hydrolysis: This process involves hydrogen combining with certain metallic ions present in minerals, forming different compounds as a result of the interaction between water and minerals.


Biological Weathering:

This type of weathering occurs due to the activities of living organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. Plants and animals contribute to rock weathering by various means. Tree roots can grow in cracks and exert pressure, causing rocks to break apart. Burrowing by animals, such as earthworms, helps loosen the soil. Human activities such as road construction, mining, and farming also contribute to biological weathering.


Factors Influencing Weathering of Rocks:

Several factors influence the weathering of rocks, including:

  1. Nature of rocks: The composition and structure of rocks determine their susceptibility to weathering processes. Some rocks are more resistant, while others are more prone to decay.
  2. Climate: Weather conditions, including temperature, rainfall, and humidity, play a significant role in the rate and intensity of weathering. Extreme climates can accelerate the weathering process.
  3. Relief: The topography and geological features of an area affect the exposure of rocks to weather forces. Steep slopes and areas prone to erosion may experience faster weathering.
  4. Vegetation: Plants and their root systems can impact weathering. Vegetation cover can protect rocks from weathering or contribute to their breakdown by exerting pressure on cracks.
  5. Man’s activity: Human activities such as construction, mining, and agriculture can accelerate or alter the natural weathering process by introducing additional forces or chemicals.

By considering these factors, we can better understand the processes and forces involved in the weathering of rocks.






  1. Mass Movements

Mass movement refers to the displacement of weathered materials (regolith) on a slope under the influence of gravity. It can also be described as the movement of rock materials from one location to another due to the force of gravity.


Factors Affecting Mass Movement:

1) Slope Gradient: The steepness of the slope plays a crucial role in mass movement. Rock materials tend to move faster on steep slopes or hilly areas compared to gentle slopes.

2) Human Activities: Human activities such as construction, farming, grazing, and recreational activities on mountain slopes can either promote or reduce the movement of rock materials.

3) Nature and Weight of Materials: The characteristics and weight of the materials affect their movement. Loose rock materials are more likely to move faster than tightly bound materials. Heavier materials generally move slower.

4) Moisture Pressure: The presence of lubricating moisture like rain, water, or ice can facilitate, promote, or increase the movement of rock materials down the slope.

5) Vegetation: The presence of vegetation can either increase or decrease the movement of rock materials. The roots of plants can stabilize the slope and reduce erosion, while dense vegetation may increase the likelihood of mass movement.


Types of Mass Movement:

There are two main types of mass movement:

  1. Slow Movement:

   (a) Soil Creep: Almost imperceptible but continuous movement of weathered material down a slope. It occurs on gentle slopes and typically has a slow speed of around 1cm per year. Water acts as a lubricant, enabling the materials to creep over each other. Factors such as alternating moisture conditions and temperature changes influence soil creep.

   (b) Talus Creep: Movement of angular rocks down moderately steep slopes. This type of movement is common in mountainous regions, where freeze-thaw cycles contribute to the movement of large talus sheets.

(c) Soil Flow: Relatively faster movement, occurring at an average rate of 5cm to 1 meter per year on moderate slopes. It is common in temperate and polar regions, where the surface layer thaws in summer while the ground below remains frozen. The saturated topsoil can move on the active layer over the frozen subsoil.


  1. Fast Movement:

   (a) Landslide: The most significant form of fast movement, where large quantities of loosened surface rocks and soil suddenly slide down a steep slope, such as a cliff, valley, or embankment. Water acts as a lubricant, and undercutting of the slope base or human activities can trigger landslides.

   (b) Rock Slide: Occurs in areas with rocks that have bedding planes, which slip towards the valley. Rock slides commonly happen in over steepened slopes and can cause significant damage.

   (c) Rock Fall: The most rapid type of mass movement, occurring on very steep or vertical slopes. It involves the detachment of rocks, which fall directly downward, forming a talus or scree at the slope’s base. Weathering agents, such as freeze-thaw cycles, wave action, earthquakes, or pressure release, can cause rock detachment.

   (d) Earth Flow and Mud Flow: Both are considered rapid movements. Earth flow occurs when the regolith on slopes with gradients between five to fifteen degrees becomes saturated with water, causing it to flow downhill. Mud flow, on the other hand, occurs in steeper slopes and involves the movement of semi-liquid mud, often with gravel and boulders. These types of mass movement are common in arid and semi-arid regions.


Effects of Mass Movement:

  1. Loss of farmlands
  2. Displacement of settlements
  3. Disruption of transportation networks
  4. Loss of soil fertility

Differences between Erosion and Mass Movement:

  1. Erosion refers to the gradual movement of topsoil, while mass movement involves the movement of loose rock materials down a slope.
  2. Agents of erosion include running water, wind, waves, and glaciers, whereas mass movement is primarily driven by the force of gravity.
  3. Erosion involves processes like scratching, polishing, pushing, and plucking of loose rock surfaces, whereas mass movement encompasses creeping, sloping, sliding, and falling movements.






Theme 2    Environment and Its Resources  

  1. Climatic Change

Climate Change: Meaning, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

Climate change refers to significant and long-term alterations in the regular weather patterns over a prolonged period. These changes are characterized by anomalies in major climate elements such as rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, pressure patterns, and other controlling factors.


Causes of Climate Change

Natural Causes:

  1. Volcanic Eruption: Climate change can result from volcanic eruptions, like the 1972 eruption in Kenya (East Africa), which significantly affected the weather in the surrounding regions. Volcanic materials and dust particles carried over long distances led to dry spells in the affected areas.
  2. Change in Earth’s Orbital Plane: The Earth’s elliptical path around the sun, as well as the angle of inclination of the Earth’s axis, can cause variations in the Equinoctial angle and result in pronounced changes in the Earth’s environment.


Man-Made Causes of Climate Change:

Human activities contribute to large-scale climate change phenomena. Some important causes include:

  1. Deforestation
  2. Atmospheric pollution
  3. Ozone layer depletion
  4. Increased greenhouse effect
  5. Increased urbanization


  1. Deforestation: Human activities that lead to the reduction of forest areas disrupt the global and regional ecological balance, impacting energy cycles and the flow of moisture, carbon, nitrogen, and other elements.
  2. Atmospheric Pollution: Industrial pollution and anthropogenic sources contribute significant quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
  3. Ozone Layer Depletion: Destruction of the ozone layer in certain areas creates “ozone holes” or atmospheric windows, allowing increased insolation (incoming solar radiation).
  4. Increased Greenhouse Effect: Increased production of carbon dioxide from sources like deforestation, industries, and agriculture intensifies the greenhouse effect, resulting in higher temperatures in the lower troposphere.
  5. Increased Urbanization: Urban development brings about large-scale changes in land characteristics, including vegetation clearance and the introduction of surfaces like roads and concrete, leading to distinct microclimates within urban areas.


Consequences of Climate Change

Climate change has far-reaching consequences on ecosystems and human welfare. Examples of these consequences include:

  1. Sea level rise and continental water flooding
  2. Melting glaciers
  3. Biodiversity loss
  4. Increased incidence of diseases
  5. Proliferation of disease vectors
  6. Reduced agricultural productivity
  7. Displacement of isotherms


  1. Sea-level Rise: Global warming and melting glaciers contribute to rising sea levels, leading to increased ocean levels.
  2. Melting Glaciers: Melting glaciers transform ecosystems and threaten life forms such as polar bears. Excessive rainfall and flooding resulting from glacial melt can pose significant dangers to human settlements.
  3. Disease Vectors: Rising temperatures caused by global warming create favorable conditions for the proliferation of disease vectors.
  4. Agricultural Productivity: Climate change can adversely affect agricultural productivity in some regions, while favoring others. Poor productivity may lead to food crises.
  5. Shift in Isotherms: Climatic changes may cause the poleward shift of isotherms, resulting in the dislocation of ecosystems across regions.


Solutions to Climate Change

Addressing climate change requires various measures, including:

  1. Improving energy efficiency
  2. Implementing clean development mechanisms
  3. Encouraging agricultural innovation
  4. Implementing population control measures
  5. Promoting improved forestry management
  6. Enacting legislative measures to protect the environment


  1. Improving Energy Efficiency: Adopting energy-efficient technologies can reduce carbon dioxide emissions, thus mitigating the greenhouse effect and global warming.
  2. Clean Development Mechanisms: Utilizing pollution-free energy sources like solar, hydro, and wind power can significantly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
  3. Agricultural Innovation: Adopting environmentally friendly practices in agriculture, such as better soil management and livestock ranching, can reduce deforestation and overgrazing.
  4. Population Control Measures: Implementing measures to control population growth helps alleviate the strain on the environment.
  5. Improved Forestry Management: Strategies like diversifying domestic fuel sources can reduce excessive exploitation of forest resources, such as using alternative energy sources instead of relying solely on fuelwood.
  6. Legislative Measures: Enacting laws and regulations to protect the environment promotes sustainable use of resources and controls environmental degradation.

By implementing these solutions, we can mitigate the impacts of climate change and work towards a more sustainable future.






Theme 3    Regional Geography of Nigeria   


Economic Co-Operation of West African States (ECOWAS).

ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States, is a sub-regional organization established by West African countries with the primary objective of promoting cooperation and development across all economic sectors, as well as contributing to the progress and advancement of the African continent.



The origin of ECOWAS can be traced back to the signing of the Lagos Treaty on May 28th, 1975, in Lagos. This historic event brought together the heads of states and governments of fifteen independent West African countries. Guinea Bissau later joined, increasing the total number of member countries to sixteen. The idea of forming ECOWAS was conceived by the leaders of Nigeria and Togo in 1973.



ECOWAS currently consists of sixteen member countries, namely Nigeria, Togo, Benin Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Cape Verde.



The administrative headquarters of ECOWAS is located in Abuja, Nigeria, while the financial headquarters is in Lome, Togo. The organization’s headquarters were originally situated in Lagos before being relocated to Abuja.



The organizational structure of ECOWAS includes several key organs. The Authority of the Heads of States and Governments, comprising the leaders of all fifteen member states, serves as the highest decision-making body. The Council of Ministers, composed of two representatives from each member state, monitors the community’s functioning and development, providing recommendations to the Authority. The Executive Secretariat carries out the administrative functions of the community and is based in Abuja, Nigeria. The Community Tribunal interprets the treaty and ensures the observance of law and justice. Additionally, there are various technical and specialized commissions, such as the Trade, Customs, Immigration, Monetary and Payment Commission, the Transport, Communication, and Energy Commission, the Industry, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Commission, the Social and Cultural Affairs Commission, and the Defense Commission.



ECOWAS has achieved numerous benefits and advancements, including the development of a common market, free movement of people, trade liberalization, cultural integration, educational integration and interaction, scientific and technical cooperation, military cooperation, promotion of unity, right to settle anywhere within the community, development of international communication, and promotion of sports.



However, ECOWAS also faces several challenges that have hindered its achievements. These challenges include similarities in product offerings, fears of domination, differences in political ideologies, non-payment of dues, non-implementation of programs, language barriers, variations in currencies, allegiance to former colonial powers, political instability, transportation problems, and burdensome debts.



To address these issues, potential solutions include diversifying production, ensuring timely payment of dues, resolving conflicts and implementing programs effectively, adopting a common currency, furthering trade liberalization, promoting the teaching of modern languages, facilitating free movement, fostering political stability, reducing dependence on former colonial powers, and encouraging commitment among member states.




Theme 4    Economic and Human Geography     

  1. Trade

Trade involves the exchange of goods and services between regions, either within the same country or between different countries. When trade occurs within a country, it is referred to as internal trade, while trade between countries is known as international trade.


Types of Trade:

International Trade:

International trade can be categorized into two groups:

  1. Import Trade: This involves the purchase of goods and services from another country for domestic consumption.
  2. Export Trade: This refers to the sale of goods and services produced domestically to foreign countries.


Reasons for Trade:

Countries engage in trade for various reasons:

  1. Differences in Natural Resources: Variation in the availability of natural resources among regions creates opportunities for trade between nations.
  2. Differences in Climate: Diverse climates support the growth of different crops, making certain regions suitable for exporting specific agricultural products.
  3. Differences in Technology: Greater disparities in technological advancements between countries often lead to increased trade volume. For example, African countries’ lower technology level compared to industrialized Western countries explains their substantial trade volume.
  4. Differences in Agricultural Production: Significant differences in agricultural output across regions promote extensive trade.
  5. Differences in Import Duties: Higher import duties imposed on foreign goods can discourage trade between countries.
  6. Differences in Prices: Larger price disparities between goods incentivize higher trade volumes between countries.
  7. Colonial Ties: Countries with historical colonial ties tend to have favorable trade relations, such as Francophone countries trading more with each other and Anglophone countries sharing significant trade volume due to their colonial past (e.g., trade between Nigeria and Britain).
  8. Political Considerations: Bilateral relations and political factors can influence trade between countries. Economic and political sanctions imposed on a country, for instance, can impact trade volume with other nations.
  9. Earning Foreign Exchange: The need to acquire foreign exchange stimulates trade between nations.


Reasons for High Volume of Trade between Nigeria and Developed Countries:

The high volume of trade between Nigeria and developed countries like Japan, Britain, USA, and China can be attributed to the following factors:

  1. Dissimilarity of Products
  2. High Level of Technology
  3. High Levels of Savings
  4. Preference for Imported Goods
  5. Absence of Trade Barriers
  6. Differences in Import Duties


Factors Limiting International Trade:

Several factors can limit the volume of international trade between countries:

  1. Strained International Relations: Economic sanctions resulting from strained diplomatic relations can lead to restrictions on imports or exports.
  2. Low Demand for Products: Insufficient demand for products can restrict trade volume between countries, as trade aims to maximize profits, and limited demand means a smaller market.
  3. Political Instability: Political instability, civil strife, and social vices like hostage-taking or hijacking can impede trade between countries.
  4. Inadequate Foreign Exchange: Insufficient foreign exchange can significantly affect trade volume between countries.
  5. Language Barrier: Language differences between countries can hinder international trade operations.
  6. Differences in Currency: Variations in currencies among countries complicate foreign exchange availability. Foreign exchange rates differ across nations, and the existence of parallel foreign exchange markets in some countries further complicates the currency situation.


Major Shipping Routes in the World:

The world’s major ocean shipping routes include:

  1. North Atlantic Route: This route connects Western Europe and Eastern parts of North America, serving as the busiest shipping route globally.
  2. Panama Canal Route: This domestic route connects the east and west coasts of the United States through the Panama Canal, benefiting Caribbean countries like Cuba, Jamaica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, and Peru.
  3. Trans-Pacific Routes: This is the longest route, linking the western side of North America with East Asia. It serves countries such as Japan, China, Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. Major seaports along this route include Sydney, Auckland, Manila, Yokohama, Vancouver, and San Francisco.
  4. Cape Route: Discovered by Vasco Da Gama in 1498, this sea route connected Europe, America, and the Middle East through South Africa. The route’s significance declined with the construction and opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Cape Town in South Africa is a major seaport along this route.
  5. South Atlantic Route: This route links South America, Europe, West Africa, and Western Europe. Major seaports on this route include London and Rotterdam in Europe, Buenos Aires in Argentina, Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, Dakar and Lagos in Nigeria. Trade items on this route include manufactured goods from Europe and agricultural produce such as coffee, wheat, meat, and dairy products from Brazil and Argentina, as well as groundnuts, crude oil, and palm products from West Africa.







  1. Concept of Tourism:

Tourism refers to the activity of people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for leisure, business, or other purposes. It involves the movement of people from one place to another, often across geographic, cultural, and political boundaries. Tourism encompasses various activities such as sightseeing, cultural exchange, recreation, relaxation, and exploration. It plays a significant role in economic growth, cultural exchange, and global understanding. There are different types of tourism, including leisure tourism, business tourism, ecotourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism, and more.


  1. Tourist Centers in Nigeria:

Nigeria, a diverse and culturally rich country in West Africa, boasts several tourist centers that showcase its natural beauty, history, and culture. Some notable tourist centers in Nigeria include:


  1. Lagos: As Nigeria’s commercial capital, Lagos features attractions like the National Museum, Lekki Conservation Centre, Tarkwa Bay Beach, and Nike Art Gallery.
  2. Abuja: The capital city is home to landmarks like Aso Rock, the Nigerian National Mosque, and the Zuma Rock.
  3. Calabar: Known for its annual Calabar Carnival, the city offers the Obudu Cattle Ranch, Kwa Waterfall, and Drill Monkey Rehabilitation Centre.
  4. Enugu: Tourist sites here include Ngwo Pine Forest, Awhum Waterfall, and the Nike Lake Resort.
  5. Osun: Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and Erin Ijesha Waterfall are among its attractions.
  6. Cross River: The state offers attractions such as Agbokim Waterfalls, Cross River National Park, and Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary.
  7. Kano City: Kano is known for its ancient city walls, historic architecture, and bustling markets like Kurmi Market. The Gidan Makama Museum and the Emir’s Palace are also popular attractions.
  8. Kaduna: The city features attractions such as the National Museum, Kajuru Castle, and Matsirga Waterfall. The Kaduna Railway Station is a historic site showcasing colonial-era architecture.


  1. Ibadan: The Cocoa House, University of Ibadan, and Agodi Gardens are notable places in this southwestern city. The Bower’s Tower offers panoramic views of the city.
  2. Benin City: The Benin Royal Palace, Oba of Benin’s Palace, and the National Museum of Benin are highlights, offering insights into the history and culture of the Edo people.
  3. Owerri: The Mbari Cultural and Art Centre, Oguta Lake, and Nekede Botanical Garden provide cultural and natural experiences in Imo State.
  4. Yankari National Park: Located in Bauchi State, this park is home to diverse wildlife, hot springs, and the Wikki Warm Spring. It offers opportunities for safaris and outdoor activities.
  5. Abeokuta: The Olumo Rock, a natural rock formation, and the historic Egba Museum are prominent attractions in Ogun State.
  6. Katsina: The Gobarau Minaret, Kusugu Well, and Emir’s Palace provide insights into the city’s history and architecture.
  7. Uyo: The Ibom Plaza, Ibom Tropicana Entertainment Center, and Godswill Akpabio International Stadium offer recreational and entertainment options.
  8. Sokoto: The Sultan’s Palace, Arkilla Archaeological Site, and Sokoto Museum showcase the city’s heritage and historical significance.
  9. Warri: The Red Mangrove Swamp and the Nana Living History Museum provide cultural and natural experiences in Delta State.
  10. Ekiti: Arinta Waterfalls, Ikogosi Warm Springs, and Ekiti Parapo Pavilion offer attractions for nature lovers and history enthusiasts.
  11. Jos: The Jos Wildlife Park, Jos Museum, and the unique Riyom Rock formations are among the attractions in Plateau State.
  12. Port Harcourt: The Isaac Boro Park, Port Harcourt Pleasure Park, and the Rivers State Museum are places to explore in the Niger Delta region.


  1. Importance of Tourism in Nigeria:

Tourism plays a vital role in Nigeria’s economy and cultural exchange. It contributes to economic growth, job creation, and revenue generation. The sector promotes cultural preservation and understanding through interactions between tourists and locals. It also boosts infrastructure development, as improved facilities benefit both tourists and residents. Additionally, tourism helps promote lesser-known regions and attractions, diversifying the sources of income for communities.

Additional importance of tourism in Nigeria includes:

  1. Generation of foreign currency inflow
  2. Imparting educational insights
  3. Propagation of job prospects
  4. Provision of communal amenities
  5. Safeguarding of wildlife and ecosystems
  6. Boosting local artisanal industries
  7. Dissemination of diverse ideas.



  1. Abundance of wildlife
  2. Presence of elevated landscapes
  3. Quality lodging facilities or hotels
  4. Convenient communication infrastructure
  5. Well-developed transportation grid and accessibility
  6. Availability of financial resources
  7. Effective security measures
  8. Sustained political stability.


  1. Limitations of Tourism in Nigeria and Possible Solutions:

While tourism holds promise in Nigeria, it faces several limitations, including:

  1. Infrastructure Challenges: Insufficient transportation, poor roads, and limited accommodations can deter tourists. Solution: Investments in infrastructure development can improve accessibility and visitor experience.
  2. Security Concerns: Safety issues and perceived insecurity can discourage tourists. Solution: Enhanced security measures, effective law enforcement, and accurate communication about safety can help address these concerns.
  3. Lack of Promotion: Inadequate marketing and promotion hinder Nigeria’s tourism potential. Solution: Comprehensive marketing campaigns, both domestically and internationally, can increase awareness of the country’s attractions.
  4. Environmental Degradation: Irresponsible tourism practices can harm natural and cultural sites. Solution: Implementing sustainable tourism practices, such as waste management and conservation efforts, can mitigate environmental impacts.
  5. Cultural Sensitivity: Lack of awareness about local customs and cultures can lead to misunderstandings. Solution: Promoting cultural sensitivity and providing cultural education for tourists can foster respect and positive interactions.
  6. Bureaucratic Challenges: Complex visa processes and bureaucratic hurdles can discourage potential visitors. Solution: Streamlining visa processes and simplifying entry procedures can facilitate tourism.


In conclusion, tourism in Nigeria holds immense potential for economic growth, cultural exchange, and global engagement. Addressing its limitations through targeted strategies can help unlock the benefits of this vibrant sector for the country.


Solutions to the problems

Infrastructure Challenges:

  1. Investment in Infrastructure: The government and private sector should collaborate to invest in modern transportation systems, upgrade roads, and develop efficient public transportation options.
  2. Accommodation Development: Encourage the construction of quality hotels and lodging facilities in tourist areas to cater to various budgets.


Security Concerns:

  1. Tourist Police Units: Establish specialized tourist police units to ensure the safety of tourists and provide a visible security presence at popular tourist sites.
  2. Collaboration with Security Agencies: Enhance cooperation between law enforcement agencies, private security firms, and tourism stakeholders to ensure comprehensive security measures.


Lack of Promotion:

  1. Tourism Marketing Campaigns: Develop comprehensive marketing campaigns that showcase Nigeria’s diverse attractions through various media channels, including social media, travel magazines, and international events.
  2. Tourism Websites and Apps: Create user-friendly websites and mobile apps with up-to-date information about tourist sites, events, and travel tips.


Environmental Degradation:

  1. Sustainable Tourism Practices: Implement guidelines for responsible tourism, including waste management, limiting visitor numbers at sensitive sites, and promoting eco-friendly practices among tourists.
  2. Conservation Initiatives: Collaborate with environmental organizations to establish conservation programs that protect natural and cultural heritage sites.


Cultural Sensitivity:

  1. Cultural Education: Develop training programs for tour guides, hotel staff, and local businesses to enhance their understanding of cultural norms, customs, and taboos.
  2. Cultural Immersion Activities: Offer cultural experiences that allow tourists to interact with local communities, fostering mutual understanding and respect.


Bureaucratic Challenges:

  1. Streamlined Visa Processes: Simplify and expedite the visa application and approval process for tourists by implementing an online visa system and providing clear guidelines.
  2. Tourism Support Centers: Establish dedicated centres that offer information and assistance to tourists, including visa application support.


Community Involvement:

  1. Local Engagement: Involve local communities in the planning, development, and management of tourism initiatives to ensure that they benefit directly from tourism revenue.
  2. Skills Development: Offer training and capacity-building programs to help local communities provide high-quality services and products to tourists.


Public-Private Partnerships:

  1. Collaboration: Foster partnerships between government agencies, private sector entities, NGOs, and local communities to collectively address challenges and capitalize on opportunities in the tourism sector.
  2. Investment Incentives: Provide incentives such as tax breaks and grants to encourage private sector investment in tourism infrastructure and services.


By addressing these limitations through a combination of strategic planning, policy changes, and collaborative efforts, Nigeria can enhance its tourism industry and create a more appealing and sustainable destination for both domestic and international tourists.






Theme 5    Introductory Geographic Information System (GIS)   

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing

  2. Concepts of Remote Sensing:

Remote sensing refers to the process of collecting information about an object, area, or phenomenon from a distance, usually using sensors mounted on aircraft, satellites, or other platforms. It involves the acquisition of data without direct physical contact with the subject of interest. Remote sensing is commonly used to gather information about the Earth’s surface, atmosphere, oceans, and even celestial bodies. The data collected can be in the form of images, spectra, or other measurements.


Remote sensing relies on the principle that different objects and materials reflect, emit, or transmit electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light, infrared, microwave, etc.) in unique ways. Sensors onboard remote sensing platforms detect and record these variations, allowing scientists, researchers, and analysts to interpret and extract valuable information from the data. Remote sensing plays a significant role in various fields including environmental monitoring, agriculture, urban planning, disaster management, and more.


  1. Relationship between Remote Sensing and GIS:

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing are closely related but distinct technologies that often complement each other in various applications. GIS is a system that captures, manages, analyzes, and presents geographical or spatial data. It allows users to organize and understand geographic information, creating maps and conducting spatial analysis.


Remote sensing provides the data that can be integrated into GIS. The information collected through remote sensing, such as satellite images or aerial photographs, can be used as input data in GIS systems to create accurate and up-to-date maps. Remote sensing data can enhance the spatial accuracy and currency of GIS databases. Conversely, GIS can provide a platform for organizing, visualizing, and analyzing the vast amount of data collected through remote sensing.


  1. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing:

Satellite remote sensing has a wide range of applications across various fields due to its ability to provide large-scale, consistent, and repetitive data. Some key applications include:


  1. Environmental Monitoring: Satellite remote sensing is used to monitor changes in land use, deforestation, urban expansion, and habitat degradation. It helps track natural phenomena like wildfires, floods, and oil spills, enabling effective disaster management and response.


  1. Agriculture: Remote sensing assists in monitoring crop health, estimating crop yields, detecting pest infestations, and managing irrigation. This information aids in optimizing agricultural practices and improving productivity.


  1. Weather and Climate Monitoring: Satellites provide valuable data for weather forecasting, climate modelling, and monitoring atmospheric phenomena like hurricanes and cyclones.


  1. Natural Resource Management: Remote sensing is used to assess water quality, monitor ocean and coastal ecosystems, and manage water resources. It helps in monitoring deforestation rates and illegal mining activities.


  1. Urban Planning and Infrastructure Development: Satellite imagery helps urban planners monitor urban growth, transportation networks, and infrastructure changes. It aids in making informed decisions for sustainable urban development.


  1. Archaeology and Cultural Heritage: Satellite images can reveal archaeological sites and historical features that are not visible from the ground. This aids archaeologists in discovering and preserving cultural heritage.


  1. Disaster Assessment and Response: Remote sensing is crucial for rapid assessment of disaster-affected areas, helping authorities plan response and recovery efforts efficiently.


These applications represent just a fraction of the many ways satellite remote sensing contributes to our understanding of the Earth and its processes. The data collected plays a vital role in addressing global challenges and making informed decisions for a sustainable future.





  1. GIS Application

  2. What is GIS (Geographic Information System):

GIS stands for Geographic Information System. It is a technology that combines geographical data (information related to locations on the Earth’s surface) with various attributes (characteristics or information about those locations) to create, manage, analyze, and visualize spatial information. GIS allows users to understand patterns, relationships, and trends in data by representing them on maps and providing tools for analysis. It involves both hardware and software components to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, and display geographic data.


  1. Various Applications of GIS:

GIS has a wide range of applications across different fields due to its ability to integrate and analyze location-based data. Some of the key applications include:

  1. Urban Planning: GIS is used to plan and manage urban areas by analyzing population density, infrastructure, land use, and transportation patterns.
  2. Environmental Management: It aids in monitoring and managing natural resources, tracking deforestation, analyzing pollution sources, and assessing the impact of climate change.
  3. Emergency Management: GIS helps in disaster response by mapping affected areas, coordinating rescue efforts, and analyzing potential hazards.
  4. Healthcare: It assists in disease mapping, healthcare resource allocation, and epidemiological studies to understand the spread of diseases.
  5. Agriculture: Farmers use GIS to optimize crop management, monitor soil conditions, and plan irrigation.
  6. Transportation: GIS is used for route planning, traffic analysis, and optimizing public transportation systems.
  7. Natural Resource Management: It aids in tracking wildlife habitats, managing water resources, and planning sustainable land use.
  8. Business Decision-Making: Companies use GIS for market analysis, site selection, and customer segmentation based on geographic data.
  9. Archaeology: GIS helps archaeologists analyze and visualize historical sites, artifacts, and landscapes.
  10. Cartography and Mapping: GIS is fundamental for creating accurate and informative maps.


  1. Problems of GIS Implementation in Nigeria:

While GIS has numerous benefits, its implementation in Nigeria, like in many other countries, faces some challenges:

  1. Data Quality and Availability: High-quality geographic data is crucial for accurate analysis, but in Nigeria, data may be outdated, incomplete, or unavailable for certain regions.
  2. Infrastructure and Technical Expertise: The effective use of GIS requires robust hardware, software, and skilled professionals. Nigeria may face limitations in terms of technological infrastructure and trained personnel.
  3. Funding: Establishing and maintaining GIS infrastructure can be costly. Limited funding might hinder the development and sustainability of GIS projects.
  4. Data Privacy and Security: Geographic data often contains sensitive information. Ensuring the security and privacy of this data can be challenging.
  5. Interdepartmental Collaboration: Successful GIS implementation often requires collaboration across various government agencies and departments, which can be hindered by bureaucratic barriers.
  6. Public Awareness and Education: Lack of public awareness about the benefits of GIS and how it can be used might lead to underutilization.
  7. Cultural and Linguistic Factors: Nigeria’s diverse cultural and linguistic landscape might require GIS applications to be tailored to specific contexts.
  8. Policy and Regulation: Absence of clear policies and regulations related to GIS data collection, sharing, and usage can create uncertainties.
  9. Power and Connectivity: Unreliable power supply and limited internet connectivity can hinder real-time data collection and analysis.


Addressing these challenges would require coordinated efforts from government bodies, private sector stakeholders, educational institutions, and international organizations to ensure the successful implementation and utilization of GIS technology in Nigeria.

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