1. Food & Nutrition SS 3


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Theme 1          Consumer Education

  1. Consumer Education
  2. Food budgeting
  3. Choice and storage of foodstuff
  4. ICPC

Theme 2          Nutrition and Health

  1. Nutritional needs of the family
  2. Special diet

Theme 3          Entertainment           

  1. The art of entertainment
  2. Cultural food habits
  3. Foods for special occasions

Theme 4          Food Preparation, Storage and Preservation          

  1. Beverages
  2. Rechauffe (leftover cookery)
  3. Food study: meats
  4. Poultry





Theme 1    Consumer Education 

  1. Consumer Education

Consumer Education Principle:

Consumer education refers to the process of informing the public about their rights as food consumers. It involves equipping individuals with the necessary information to understand their consumer rights, make informed decisions, and engage in intelligent consumption within their means or available resources.


Aims of Con00sumer Education:

Consumer education aims to achieve the following goals:

  1. Enlighten consumers about their rights in relation to food purchases.
  2. Educate consumers about relevant laws governing food production and sales, as well as manufacturing standards.
  3. Provide knowledge about sanitary practices throughout the food handling process until consumption.
  4. Raise awareness about federal and state agencies working to ensure food safety.


Importance/Advantages of Consumer Education:

Consumer education holds several advantages:

  1. Empower consumers to understand their rights.
  2. Equips consumers to evaluate information about products, such as expiry dates, weights, and brand names.
  3. Enables consumers to make informed choices about purchasing goods and services.
  4. Assists consumers in obtaining the best value for their money.
  5. Helps reduce wasteful consumption.
  6. Protects consumers from unsafe products and unfair selling practices.


Consumer Rights:

Consumers possess the following rights:

  1. The right to safe products.
  2. The right to be educated and informed about products.
  3. The right to choose desired goods and services freely.
  4. The right to voice opinions on products and services.
  5. The right to satisfaction with products.
  6. The right to detailed information before purchasing.
  7. The right to express views about available products.
  8. The right to seek redress.
  9. The right to buy from any retailer.
  10. The right to a healthy environment.
  11. The right to legal protection.
  12. The right to educate sellers or producers.



Consumer agents encompass individuals involved in the distribution network of goods. This group comprises:


  1. Manufacturers: Individuals responsible for crafting goods for consumers. Their products are often packaged in materials such as cellophane, tins, bottles, plastics, foil, and more.


  1. Major Distributors: People who purchase goods in substantial quantities directly from industries. These distributors subsequently sell to sub-distributors.


  1. Sub-distributors or Wholesalers: These intermediaries procure goods from major distributors or manufacturers and then send them to retailers. They typically buy in bulk, earning them the title of wholesalers. Wholesalers also facilitate communication between retailers and manufacturers. Additionally, they aid in reducing the congestion of manufacturers’ warehouses, creating space for new production.


  1. Retailers: These entities purchase goods in smaller quantities from wholesalers and sell directly to consumers. To meet individual customer demands, retailers maintain stocks of various goods in limited quantities. Retailers directly engage with consumers, thereby acting as conduits for transmitting consumers’ feedback and concerns to manufacturers through wholesalers. Retailers may also include hawkers and sales agents.


  1. Consumers: These end users acquire goods exclusively for utilization. The existence of consumers is pivotal; without them, retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers would be unable to liquidate their goods, hampering the production cycle. It’s crucial for retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers to consistently prioritize consumers’ interests and attentively heed their comments and grievances.


Government Bodies and Regulatory Authorities:

Government agencies play a pivotal role in formulating and enforcing food standards and regulations. Notable examples of such agencies include:


– Codex Alimentarius Commission: An international entity known as the World Food Agency, responsible for setting global standards for food and drug quality. Membership in this organization is anticipated from all nations. The commission’s establishment is a joint effort of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO).


Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON):

 Formed as a division within the Federal Ministry of Trade and industries in 1970. Its functions encompass:

  1. Developing standards for manufactured foods produced domestically and imported into Nigeria.
  2. Creating, establishing, and endorsing standards for weights and measures, material commodities, structures, and processes used to certify products in commerce and industry.
  3. Standardizing methods and products across various industries throughout the nation.
  4. Implementing quality control measures for raw materials and products in compliance with standard specifications.
  5. Ensuring manufacturers adhere to governmental policies and standardization.



Established under the Federal Ministry of Health in 1974. Its key roles include:

  1. Crafting standards for foods and drugs in Nigeria.
  2. Appointing Food Inspecting Officers (FIOs) to monitor activities of food manufacturers, supermarkets, and restaurants, ensuring adherence to set standards and laws.
  3. Preventing the sale of adulterated and misbranded food items to consumers.


National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC):

 NAFDAC’s responsibilities encompass:

  1. Prohibiting the sale of foods or drugs manufactured in unsanitary conditions.
  2. Curbing deceptive advertising of foods and drugs.
  3. Enforcing manufacturers’ compliance with approved standards for foods and drugs.
  4. Monitoring activities of food establishments, including hotels, restaurants, cold rooms, markets, and food manufacturing companies, to enforce proper hygiene and environment.
  5. Restricting the sale of poisonous or unsafe goods for human consumption.

These agencies collaborate to regulate and ensure the safety and quality of products in the consumer market.


The Price Intelligence Agency:

Established in 1976 as the research arm of the Price Control Board, the Price Intelligence Agency’s purpose is to uncover various malpractices engaged in by suppliers, manufacturers, and importers that pose a threat to consumers’ rights. Functioning as a vigilant overseer of the Price Control Board, this agency has the following objectives:

  1. Continuously studying and interpreting price movements and their correlation with other developments in the national economy.
  2. Formulating strategies for regulating prices across different sectors of the economy and curbing hoarding, a practice that leads to price increases.
  3. Monitoring and supervising the maintenance of sale prices.
  4. Collaborating with similar boards to consistently obtain factory prices of goods imported into Nigeria, enabling internal price regulation.


Consumer Practices Definitions:

Here are definitions for key terms related to consumer practices:

  1. Food Standards: A set of rules and regulations governing the manufacturing and sale of food items within a specific country or locality. This encompasses specifications that all products must adhere to.
  2. Hire Purchase: An arrangement between a buyer and a seller where a certain portion of a product’s cost is initially deposited. The remaining balance is paid in regular instalments until it’s fully settled. Ownership of the goods remains with the seller until the buyer completes payments. In case of default, the seller can repossess the goods.
  3. Credit Purchase: When a buyer pays a portion of a product’s cost and commits to paying the balance in monthly instalments as a lump sum. Ownership is transferred to the buyer immediately, and the goods are taken.
  4. Impulse Buying: The act of purchasing goods without prior planning or budgeting. Items are bought due to attractive packaging or display, without careful consideration of whether they are truly needed. Such purchases are often hasty and can result in unwise and costly decisions.


Adulterated Foods:

This Refers to food that:

  1. Is contaminated, putrid, or decomposed.
  2. Is manufactured under unsanitary conditions.
  3. Contains substances harmful to health that are concealed by colouring or flavouring.
  4. Originates from deceased animals (e.g., suya).
  5. Has missing or substituted valuable ingredients.



  1. Food budgeting

Budgeting involves the process of formulating a budget. A household budget functions as a prospective outline for a given household’s forthcoming expenses. The essence of budgeting lies in orchestrating the allocation of net income in a manner that safeguards the individual from encountering financial predicaments before the next inflow of income.


This process entails the compilation of all projected expenses alongside their associated costs. Proficient budgeting culminates in prudent administration of familial earnings, while deficient budgeting results in extravagant squandering of resources.



  1. Family Income: Encompassing monetary and economic resources accessible to a family for fulfilling its requisites.
  2. Monetary Income: Denoting the overall funds available to a family within a specified timeframe. This embodies the family’s capacity to procure goods and services.
  3. Gross Income: Encompassing the entire earnings derived from an individual’s income.
  4. Net Income: Signifying the residual funds subsequent to deducting various outlays, like taxes, water charges, and levies.
  5. Budget: Constituting a blueprint delineating the allotment of family income. Typically devised based on net income.
  6. Expenditure: Signifying the monetary outflow on necessary goods and services for the family.
  7. Needs: Categorized into two segments – essential needs, which are imperative and irreplaceable, including sustenance, housing, and attire; and secondary needs, which are discretionary, such as purchasing new footwear, utilities, furnishings, and so on.



  1. Facilitating prudent financial choices within the family.
  2. Steering monetary resources toward genuine necessities.
  3. Mitigating superfluous dissipation of family funds.
  4. Providing insights into the utilization of financial resources.
  5. Curbing impulsive expenditures.
  6. Fostering financial education among children.



  1. Family Net Income
  2. Family Needs
  3. Nature of Planned Capital Expenditure
  4. Family’s Taste and Values
  5. Number of Dependents or Family Size
  6. Season of the Year



Food budgeting involves strategizing and allocating funds within the family budget for food expenses. This practice empowers the homemaker to curate a balanced menu for the family. A food budget comprises a comprehensive list of intended food purchases along with associated costs.



  1. Allocated Food Budget
  2. Individual Tastes of Family Members
  3. Nutritional Requirements Based on Family Composition and Health
  4. Seasonal Availability of Foods
  5. Substitutes for Various Food Items
  6. Storage Facilities at Home
  7. Price Variation across Markets
  8. Shelf Life of Food Items



Bulk purchasing pertains to procuring goods, including food, in sizable quantities for home storage.



  1. Economical and Cost-Saving
  2. Time and Energy Efficient
  3. Facilitates Seasonal Food Buying
  4. Especially Beneficial for Larger Families
  5. Ensures Constant Food Availability



  1. Can Consume a Significant Portion of the Budget
  2. May Lead to Monotony in Diet
  3. Requires Proper Storage Management to Prevent Wastage
  4. Risk of Spoilage if Poor-Quality Items Are Bought in Bulk



  1. Create a Thoughtful Shopping List
  2. Adhere to the Shopping List
  3. Confirm Adequate Storage Space
  4. Opt for Seasonal Food Purchases
  5. Assess Food Quality Before Buying
  6. Compare Values and Prices Across Stores
  7. Embrace Bulk Purchases When Appropriate



  1. Choice and Storage of Foodstuff

Storage Equipment:

Storage equipment refers to the various tools and containers used to store food items, both in homes and in commercial settings. Proper storage equipment helps maintain the freshness, quality, and safety of food. Different types of storage equipment are designed to accommodate different types of foods and their specific storage requirements. Common examples of storage equipment include:


  1. Refrigerators: Used to store perishable items at low temperatures to slow down bacterial growth. They have different compartments for various types of foods.


  1. Freezers: Designed for long-term storage of frozen foods, preserving their quality and preventing freezer burn.


  1. Pantry Shelves and Cabinets: Used for storing non-perishable items like canned goods, dry goods (flour, pasta), and spices in a cool, dry place.


  1. Airtight Containers: Keep food items fresh by preventing air and moisture from entering. Used for storing leftovers, grains, and snacks.


  1. Glass or Plastic Containers: Ideal for storing foods in the fridge or freezer, allowing you to see the contents easily.


  1. Vacuum Sealers: Remove air from containers to extend the shelf life of foods. Commonly used for bulk or sous vide cooking.


  1. Mason Jars: Often used for canning and preserving foods, creating airtight seals to prevent spoilage.


  1. Produce Storage Bags: Designed to extend the life of fruits and vegetables by controlling humidity and airflow.


Storage of Perishable and Non-Perishable Foods:

Perishable Foods: These are foods that have a limited shelf life and are more prone to spoilage. Examples include dairy products, meats, seafood, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Perishable foods should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer to maintain their freshness and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Use them within their recommended timeframes to ensure safety and quality.


 Non-Perishable Foods: These are foods that have a longer shelf life due to their lower moisture content or processing methods. Examples include canned goods, dried pasta, rice, and some types of packaged snacks. Non-perishable foods can be stored in a cool, dry pantry or cabinet. While they won’t spoil quickly, it’s still important to check for signs of spoilage, such as changes in colour, texture, or odour.


  1. Factors Affecting Selection:

   When choosing storage equipment and methods for food items, several factors come into play:


  1. Type of Food: Different foods have different storage requirements. Perishable foods need refrigeration or freezing, while non-perishables can be stored at room temperature.


  1. Temperature: Temperature is a critical factor in food storage. Perishable foods should be stored at temperatures that slow down bacterial growth, while non-perishables should be stored in a stable environment to prevent moisture and heat-related damage.


  1. Humidity: Some foods are sensitive to humidity. For example, high humidity can cause flour to clump, while low humidity can dry out certain foods.


  1. Airtightness: Foods that are prone to absorbing odours or losing moisture should be stored in airtight containers to maintain their quality.


  1. Space: The available storage space in your kitchen or pantry will influence the type and amount of storage equipment you can use.


  1. Frequency of Use: Consider how often you access certain foods. Items used frequently should be easily accessible, while those used less often can be stored in less accessible areas.


  1. Food Safety: Proper storage helps prevent foodborne illnesses. Consider food safety guidelines when choosing storage methods, especially for perishable items.


  1. Longevity: Some storage methods, like canning or vacuum sealing, are effective for extending the shelf life of foods.


By considering these factors, you can make informed decisions about storage equipment and methods that best suit your needs and help you maintain the quality and safety of your food supply.



Create a Thoughtful Shopping List:

Compile a well-considered shopping list before heading out to shop.


Stick to Your List:

Adhere to your prepared shopping list while making purchases.


Ensure Adequate Storage Space:

Prioritize having enough storage capacity for the food items you intend to buy.


Opt for Seasonal Foods:

Purchase foods that are currently in season for optimal freshness and flavor.


Assess Food Quality Before Purchase:

Evaluate the quality of food items before making a purchase decision.


Compare Value and Price:

Make informed decisions by comparing both the value and prices of items across different stores.


Embrace Bulk Purchasing:

Consider buying food items in larger quantities whenever feasible.



Economical and Money-Saving:

Bulk buying is cost-effective and leads to monetary savings.


Time and Energy Efficiency:

It saves time and energy by reducing the frequency of shopping trips.


Ideal for Seasonal Purchases:

Bulk purchasing aligns well with buying seasonal foods.


Suitable for Larger Families:

Especially useful for managing food in households with numerous members.


Continuous Food Availability:

Ensures a consistent food supply at home.



Financial Limitations:

Bulk purchasing might strain the family budget and hinder other essential purchases.


Dietary Monotony:

Stocking up excessively on a single food can lead to dietary monotony.


Risk of Wastage:

Improper storage management can result in food wastage.


Quality Concerns:

Low-quality items purchased in bulk may spoil during storage.



Food Preservation Defined:

Food preservation involves treating food in ways that maintain its quality over an extended period.



Solar Drying:

Preservation through sun drying.



A preservation method involving smoking the food.



Preservation achieved by freezing food.



Plastic Food Containers:

Containers designed for safe storage of food.


Food Storage Areas:

Designated spaces for preserving food.


Cupboards, Cabinets, and Shelves:

Furniture pieces used to store food items.


Refrigerators and Freezers:

Appliances for cooling and freezing food.



Prevention of Spoilage:

Proper storage curbs food spoilage.


Retainment of Nutrients:

Appropriate storage helps preserve nutritional value.


Financial Savings:

It aids in saving money by reducing waste.


Time and Energy Efficiency:

Efficient storage minimizes frequent market trip




  1. ICPC

Definition of ICPC:

ICPC stands for the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission. It is a Nigerian government agency established to address corruption, fraud, and related offenses within the public and private sectors. The ICPC was created to investigate and prosecute cases of corruption and related offenses, promote transparency and accountability in public service, and educate the public about the negative impacts of corruption.


  1. Function of ICPC:

The functions of the ICPC include:

  1. Investigating and prosecuting cases of corruption and related offences in Nigeria.
  2. Preventing corrupt practices through education, enlightenment campaigns, and promotion of integrity in public and private sectors.
  3. Enforcing compliance with the provisions of the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act.
  4. Advising and educating organizations and individuals on how to prevent corruption and corrupt practices.
  5. Promoting transparency and accountability in the management of public resources.
  6. Collaborating with other law enforcement agencies to combat corruption effectively.


  1. Penalties for Such Offences:

The penalties for offences related to corruption and misappropriation of funds can vary depending on the specific laws and regulations of the country in question, such as Nigeria in this case. Penalties typically include fines, imprisonment, or a combination of both. The exact penalties for specific offences are outlined in the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act of Nigeria.

                                                       Source: https://icpc.gov.ng

  1. Misappropriation of Family Food Budget:

Misappropriation of a family food budget refers to the act of diverting funds allocated for purchasing food and essential items for personal use rather than the intended purpose of supporting the family’s nutritional needs. This behaviour can have serious consequences, especially for vulnerable members of the family such as children and the elderly.


  1. Diversion of Food Budget to Personal Usage:

Diversion of a food budget to personal usage involves taking funds allocated for purchasing food and using them for individual purposes unrelated to sustenance. This action can lead to deprivation and hunger for family members who depend on those resources for their nutritional needs. Such behavior, especially if done knowingly and intentionally, is generally considered unethical and can have legal implications, depending on local laws and regulations.

It’s important to note that while I’ve provided general information based on your descriptions, the specifics of legal definitions, penalties, and consequences can vary from one jurisdiction to another. If you’re seeking information about a specific jurisdiction, it’s recommended to consult the relevant laws and legal resources for accurate and up-to-date information.



Theme 2    Nutrition and Health 

  1. Nutritional needs of the family


(Infants aged 0 – 1 year and toddlers aged 1 – 2 years)

Guidelines for Providing Children’s Meals

Ensure that the meals for young children are high in protein for muscle development, energy-rich foods for their physical activities, as well as minerals and vitamins to support their vitality. It’s important to include sources of milk, meat, fish, eggs, and legumes in their diet. Keep meal times consistent and adhere to a regular schedule. Cook their food using easily digestible methods. Refrain from excessive consumption of sweets and candies to prevent potential tooth decay.



This life stage involves rapid growth, necessitating proper nutrition. Adolescents should consume meals abundant in protein, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins.



A heightened intake of iron is necessary for adolescent girls. This compensates for the iron loss that occurs during their monthly menstruation. Inadequate iron intake can lead to anemia.



Individuals in this age group have achieved maturity and no longer experience growth spurts. Their dietary requirements shift toward sustaining energy and maintaining health rather than promoting growth. The following subsections describe specific adult groups:


Manual Workers: This category encompasses individuals engaged in physically demanding tasks like farming, woodcutting, mining, etc. Such occupations expend considerable energy, thus necessitating an increased intake of energy-rich foods.


Sedentary Workers: These individuals engage in non-strenuous, seated activities such as office work, writing, and shopkeeping. Their dietary needs for energy-rich foods are less pronounced.



Members of this group typically have reduced physical activity, leading to decreased energy requirements. Their protein and vitamin needs remain consistent.



An invalid is someone who is unwell, while a Convalescent is recovering after an illness. Strict adherence to doctor’s instructions is essential when preparing meals for them. Their diet should be balanced, served at regular intervals, and avoid heavily spiced foods. Opt for easily digestible cooking methods.



A strict vegetarian abstains from animal products like meat, fish, and eggs. On the other hand, a lacto-vegetarian avoids meat and fish but includes dairy products. In both cases, meals should encompass a variety of vegetables, protein-rich foods, and soybeans.




Theme 3    Entertainment      

  1. The art of entertainment

The role of food in our daily lives is significant, as it is intertwined with personal connections. The act of serving food has always been linked to close human relationships. When there’s a celebration, there’s a clear distinction between the hosts and the guests. The guests are those who come to share joy on a specific occasion, while the hosts are there to welcome and accommodate the guests. The success of any event depends on the collaboration between hosts and guests.


When arranging a celebration, careful planning is crucial. This includes decisions about:

  1. The selection of dishes to be offered.
  2. The number of individuals to invite.
  3. The type of gathering.
  4. The ambiance or location of the event.
  5. The age range of the attendees.
  6. Available security measures.
  7. The style of invitation.
  8. Available amenities.


Following this planning, invitations are sent out to guests, and hosts await their arrival to extend a warm welcome. Responding to invitations, whether positively or negatively, aids in effective planning.


Guidelines for sending invitations:

  1. Ensure the invitation aligns with the event’s nature.
  2. Dispatch invitations at least two weeks before the event.
  3. Design invitations to capture recipients’ attention.
  4. Optionally specify a dress code.


Desirable qualities of a guest:

  1. Punctuality is key.
  2. Responding to invitations promptly.
  3. Apologizing for lateness, if applicable.
  4. Not causing disruptions to other attendees.
  5. Following the lead of waitstaff.
  6. Displaying proper table etiquette.
  7. Respecting the event’s seating arrangements and layout.


Table setting, a critical aspect of events, involves arranging the dining area for optimal convenience. Points to consider include the cleanliness of utensils and surroundings, the number of courses, the number of diners, and the type of occasion.


Essential components for table setting:

  1. Tablecloth for aesthetic purposes.
  2. Placemats for protection against heat.
  3. Utensils set.
  4. Drinking glasses.
  5. Napkin for mouth wiping.
  6. Flower vase for decoration.
  7. Cruet set for salt and pepper.


Two main types of table setting:                                                                                            

  1. Formal: Used in upscale dinners and requires waitstaff assistance.
  2. Informal: Common in homes and offices, no specific protocols are followed before eating.



Table laying involves the act of adorning restaurant or dining tables with elegant tablecloths. Few things enhance the ambiance of a room more than tables adorned with immaculate, finely starched linen tablecloths and napkins. To maintain their pristine appearance, the tablecloth and napkin should be handled minimally to prevent creasing. Achieving this necessitates skillful and efficient initial placement of the tablecloth.



Prior to placing the tablecloth, it’s essential to ensure that the table and chairs are positioned correctly. The table’s surface should be spotless and level, with careful attention paid to eliminating any instability. If the table exhibits slight wobbling, rectification can be achieved by inserting a cork disc.


Subsequently, the appropriate-sized tablecloth should be gathered. Most tablecloths are folded in a manner referred to as a “screen fold.” Upon completing the covering process, the waiter should stand between the table’s legs. When dealing with a larger gathering requiring two tablecloths to cover a single table, it’s preferable to have the overlapping portion facing away from the room’s entrance. This arrangement serves both the room’s aesthetic and the presentation of the tables.

Unfurling the screen fold entails opening it across the table’s surface, with the inverted and two single folds oriented towards the waiter. The inverted fold should rest on top.



  1. Position your thumb atop the inverted fold, while the index and third fingers flank the middle fold.
  2. Extend your arms to span the table’s width and elevate the cloth, allowing the lower folds to drape freely.
  3. Position the cloth’s edge over the table’s opposing side, opposite to where you’re situated.
  4. Release the middle fold and gently unfold the cloth, pulling it towards yourself until the entire table is draped.
  5. Confirm that the cloth’s drape is even on all sides.
  6. If necessary, make adjustments by tugging on the cloth’s edges.


A correctly laid tablecloth should exhibit the following characteristics:

  1. The tablecloth’s corners align with the table legs.
  2. The overhang of the tablecloth is uniform along the table’s perimeter.
  3. Creases in the tablecloth maintain consistent orientation throughout the room.


In scenarios requiring two tablecloths to cover a large table, positioning the overlap away from the room’s entrance is recommended to enhance both the room’s ambiance and the table’s presentation.



Table setting pertains to the arrangement of a table with various items such as utensils and serving dishes, prepared and positioned for both serving and dining.



Informal Table Setting

Designed for everyday use and suitable for any meal. Essential cutlery is provided as the meal is not a multi-course affair. The tablecloth isn’t placed before the arrival of family members or guests. This setting is typically utilized within a familial context.


Formal Table Setting

Reserved for special occasions like weddings, luncheons, and dinner parties, as well as in upscale restaurants for diverse table services. The table is meticulously organized following established guidelines, and waitstaff assist with service. The table is set prior to guest arrival, featuring personalized cutlery and plates for each individual.



1. Place mats

2. Table napkins/Serviettes

3. Utensils

4. Menu cards and table numbers

5. Cruet set

6. Serving plates

7. Water goblets

8. Wine goblets

9. Side plates

10. Butter dish

11. Ash trays, etc.

Note: Some items may vary depending on the specific meal being served.



  1. Arrange utensils in order of use on a service salver, with the first to be used farthest away.
  2. Position forks on the left side of the plates and knives on the right.
  3. Ensure cutlery is about an inch from the table or mat’s edge.
  4. Orient the bowl of the spoon and fork’s prongs upward, and direct the sharp edge of the knife toward the plate.
  5. Turn glasses upside down and place them above the cutlery on the right side. Drinks should not be poured into glasses before guests arrive.
  6. Place folded napkins on the side plate, inside a glass cup, or centrally on the table.
  7. Situate the cruet set within easy reach at the table’s center.
  8. Position a low flower vase in the table’s center.



  1. Determine the number of diners and select the menu accordingly.
  2. Opt for a simple and natural table design.
  3. Utilize colors and materials that enhance the table’s visual appeal.
  4. Ensure the table setting complements the meal, considering materials that suit both the meal and its serving method.
  5. Prioritize the comfort and enjoyment of the diners.
  6. Thoroughly clean all materials used for table setting and the meal.
  7. Place cutlery pieces relatively close together.


To cover, in its literal sense, entails placing a large white napkin over the table setting and dishes. This action signifies that thorough precautions have been taken to prevent any potential harm to guests through food poisoning.


In the context of modern food service operations, the term “cover” pertains to a designated portion of the dining table, fully equipped with all the necessary tableware for an individual’s meal. It designates the arrangement for a single person at the table. The usage of “cover” can also indicate the count of guests to be accommodated, such as saying “100 covers” means the tables are prepared to serve 100 guests.


Furthermore, a “cover” can encompass the complete set of essential cutlery, crockery, glassware, and linens required to create a specific place setting for an individual’s meal. Diverse types of place settings may be arranged based on the meal type and style of service being offered.



Each cover should exhibit a sense of balance, with all necessary cutlery, glassware, etc., being present but not overcrowding the setting.

All cutlery and table accessories need to be positioned at least an inch away from the table’s edge.

Knives and spoons are positioned on the right side, while forks are placed on the left.

The cutting edge of knives should face the left side.

The water glass is positioned at the tip of the large knife.

The napkin is centered within the cover.

The cruet set is placed atop the cover.

All covers should be symmetrically aligned, directly opposite each other, and typically about 60cm in length.



  1. À La Carte Cover: This type is structured around the concept that the cutlery for each course is presented just prior to its service. Only the cutlery needed for the hors d’oeuvre (first course) is initially set on the table. Hence, the cover consists of:
  2. Fish plate (center of the cover)
  3. Fish knife (to the right of the fish plate)
  4. Fish fork (to the left of the fish plate)
  5. Side knife (on the side plate)
  6. Napkin (on the fish plate)
  7. Water and wine glasses (at the tip of the fish knife)
  8. Cruet set
  9. Low flower vase

   Once the à la carte cover is established, the necessary cutlery for the chosen dishes is progressively laid out.


  1. Classic or Basic Lay Up: This is an adaptation of the à la carte setup. The classic approach employs a decorative large cover plate instead of a fish plate at the center, and the fish knife and fork might be replaced with a joint knife and fork.


  1. Table d’Hôte Cover: This type involves setting the cutlery for the entire meal before the initial course is served. When a table d’hôte cover is arranged, the server should remove any surplus cutlery after taking the order and add any additional items as required. The supplementary elements for a table d’hôte menu include:
  2. Napkin (center of the cover)
  3. Side plate (with side knife on it)
  4. Fish fork (to the left of the side plate)
  5. Soup spoon (at the far right of the napkin)
  6. Fish knife (prior to the soup spoon)
  7. Joint knife (between fish knife and napkin)
  8. Wine glass (at the tip of the knives)
  9. Water glass (next to the wine glass)
  10. Dessert fork (in front of the napkin, prongs facing the glasses)
  11. Dessert spoon (followed by the bowl toward the cruet set, handle toward the glasses)


  1. Cultural food habits

  2. Food Habits:

Food habits refer to the regular patterns of eating and drinking that individuals or groups of people follow. These habits encompass the types of foods consumed, the frequency and timing of meals, the methods of food preparation, and cultural or social aspects related to eating. Food habits can vary widely between different cultures, regions, and individuals based on factors such as tradition, availability of ingredients, religious beliefs, health considerations, and personal preferences.


  1. Meaning of Food Habits and Taboos:

Food habits and taboos are closely related concepts that pertain to the consumption of certain foods and beverages based on cultural, religious, or social beliefs. Here’s what each term means:


Food Habits: Food habits are the customary practices and patterns of eating and drinking that individuals or groups follow. These habits can be influenced by factors such as cultural heritage, geography, climate, economic status, and personal health choices. Food habits can include preferences for certain types of cuisine, eating at specific times of day, and dietary restrictions.


 Food Taboos: Food taboos are specific prohibitions or restrictions on the consumption of certain foods or beverages within a particular cultural or social context. These taboos are often rooted in traditional beliefs, religion, or superstitions. Violating a food taboo may be considered offensive, sacrilegious, or socially unacceptable. Food taboos can arise from a variety of reasons, such as concerns about purity, health, morality, or avoiding negative spiritual consequences.


Both food habits and taboos play a significant role in shaping the dietary choices and behaviors of individuals and communities, and they often reflect the values and norms of a given society. It’s important to note that these practices can vary widely from one culture or group to another, and what might be considered a food taboo in one place could be completely acceptable in another.

This is also known as a specialty menu.It can be a set priced menu or individually priced menu or individually priced dish specializing in the food of a particular country, religion or a specialized food itself. The specialty could be ethnic, i.e. food in the menu could reflect Chinese, Indian, Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Greek,Africa or specialty like diabetic, hypertensive etc.It is usually changed daily and cheaper or better.


In Nigeria, different ethnic groups have their own traditional dishes/ meal. Examples are:

1. Hausa Dishes

2. Taushe da tu won shinkafa

3. Karkashi da tuwonshinkafa

4. Miyan wake da sakwara

5. Miyanridi da brabisko

Other Hausa dishes are:

  1. Tuwo Shinkafa: A dish made from cooked rice that is pounded until it becomes smooth and stretchy. It’s usually served with various soups and stews.
  2. Miyan Kuka: A soup made from baobab leaves and usually cooked with meat or fish. It has a unique tangy taste and is often served with tuwo or other starches.
  3. Fulani Soup: This is a popular Hausa dish made from groundnut (peanut) soup. It’s often cooked with meat and various vegetables and served with a staple like rice, millet, or yams.
  4. Miyan Taushe: A soup made from pumpkin and often cooked with groundnut paste. It can be served with rice or other starchy accompaniments.
  5. Dambu Nama: Dried and spiced shredded beef, often eaten as a snack or used as a topping for various dishes.
  6. Dan Wake: A type of Hausa salad made from bean cake (akara), onions, tomatoes, and other vegetables, often served with spicy sauces.
  7. Kilishi: Similar to beef jerky, kilishi is a spicy dried meat snack that’s marinated with various spices and flavors.
  8. Warankashi: Fried bean cakes, usually served with various sauces or soups.
  9. Fufu: A staple food made from starchy ingredients like cassava, yams, or plantains. It’s often served with soups or sauces.
  10. Masa: Rice cakes made from fermented rice batter. They are usually served with various sauces or soups.
  11. Zogale: A dish made from moringa leaves, often cooked with groundnut paste or meat.

These are just a few examples of traditional Hausa dishes. The Hausa cuisine is diverse and varies across regions, so there are many more delicious dishes to explore.


1. Igbo Dishes

2. Offeowerri

3. Offeujuju

4. Offeonugbu with fufu

5. Uziza and utazi

Other Igbo dishes are:

  1. Jollof Rice: A popular West African dish, including in Igbo cuisine. It’s a one-pot rice dish cooked with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and various spices.
  2. Ofe Onugbu: Also known as Bitter Leaf Soup, this soup is made from the bitter leaf vegetable and often includes assorted meats and fish.
  3. Ofe Oha: Oha Soup is made from the tender leaves of the oha plant and is typically cooked with assorted meats, crayfish, and palm fruit extract.
  4. Nkwobi: This is a spicy dish made from cow’s foot, often cooked with peppers, onions, and various spices.
  5. Ukodo: A yam pepper soup made with a blend of yam, plantains, and assorted meats, typically flavored with peppers and local spices.
  6. Abacha: Also known as African Salad, it’s a dish made from dried and shredded cassava, often mixed with vegetables, palm oil, and spices.
  7. Akara: These are deep-fried bean cakes made from black-eyed peas and spices. They are a popular street food.
  8. Ofe Nsala: Also called White Soup, it’s a light soup made with yam or plantains and fish or meat, often flavored with utazi leaves.
  9. Nri Akwụ: Yam and garden egg stew often served with rice or yam.
  10. Ugba and Okporoko: This is a dish made from ukpaka (oil bean) and dried fish.
  11. Isiewu: A delicacy made from goat’s head, often seasoned and spiced, then boiled and served with pounded yam.
  12. Moin Moin: While common across Nigeria, Moin Moin is also enjoyed in Igbo cuisine. It’s a dish made from blended peeled beans, mixed with spices and sometimes fish or eggs, then steamed.
  13. Nkwobi: Spicy cow foot dish.
  14. Akpu/Ukodo: Yam pepper soup.
  15. Ugba and Okporoko: Oil bean and dried fish dish.

These are just a few examples of the rich and diverse dishes found in Igbo cuisine. Keep in mind that specific ingredients and preparations can vary within the Igbo community.


1. Yoruba Dishes

2. Ewedu soup and amala

3. Egusi soup with pounded yam

4. Efoelegusi and eba

5. Ikokore

Other Yoruba dishes are:

Certainly! Yoruba cuisine is a rich and diverse culinary tradition originating from the Yoruba people in Nigeria. Here are some popular Yoruba dishes:


  1. Jollof Rice: A flavorful one-pot rice dish cooked with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and a blend of spices. It’s a staple dish across many West African countries.
  2. Efo Riro: A vegetable soup made with various leafy greens like spinach or kale, cooked in a rich tomato and pepper sauce, often with added protein like meat or fish.
  3. Amala: A smooth and stretchy dough made from yam or cassava flour, typically served with a variety of soups and stews.
  4. Pounded Yam: Boiled yam pounded until it becomes smooth and stretchy, often served with soups like Egusi or Efo Riro.
  5. Ewa Agoyin: Cooked beans that are mashed and served with a spicy stew made from oil, onions, and pepper.
  6. Gbegiri Soup: A bean soup made from brown beans, often served as an accompaniment to Amala or other starchy foods.
  7. Iyan (Pounded Yam) and Egusi: Pounded yam served with Egusi soup, a combination of pounded yam and the soup made from ground melon seeds.
  8. Efo-Elegusi: A soup made from a combination of Efo Riro and Egusi soup.
  9. Ofada Rice and Ayamase: A dish consisting of locally grown Ofada rice served with Ayamase, a spicy stew made with green peppers and assorted meats.

These are just a few examples of Yoruba dishes, and there are many more delicious and unique meals in Yoruba cuisine. Keep in mind that the names and preparations of these dishes might vary slightly based on individual preferences and regional differences within the Yoruba culture.


These are also called civilized dishes. These are dishes that are not naturally taken by the native people.

Some of these foreign dishes are:

1. Grilled chicken duchess potatoes

2. Fish in batter with potatoes

3. Chicken Marinade with croquettes potatoes

4. Hamburger American style

5. European Dishes

6. Fillet steak with Yorkshire pudding

7. Roast chicken with bread sauce

8. Chicken Marinade with croquettes and potatoes

9. Shepherd’s pie

Here are some popular European dishes from various countries:


  1. Pizza Margherita
  2. Spaghetti Carbonara
  3. Risotto
  4. Lasagna
  5. Tiramisu



  1. Coq au Vin
  2. Croissant
  3. Beef Bourguignon
  4. Ratatouille
  5. Crème Brûlée



  1. Paella
  2. Tapas (small appetizers)
  3. Gazpacho (cold tomato soup)
  4. Churros with Chocolate
  5. Tortilla Española (Spanish omelette)



  1. Bratwurst with Sauerkraut
  2. Schnitzel
  3. Pretzels
  4. Sauerkraut
  5. Black Forest Cake



  1. Moussaka
  2. Souvlaki
  3. Greek Salad
  4. Spanakopita (spinach pie)
  5. Baklava


United Kingdom:

  1. Fish and Chips
  2. Shepherd’s Pie
  3. Full English Breakfast
  4. Beef Wellington
  5. Scones with Clotted Cream and Jam



  1. Swedish Meatballs
  2. Gravad Lax (cured salmon)
  3. Smörgåsbord (assortment of dishes)
  4. Princess Cake
  5. Raggmunk (potato pancake)



  1. Bacalhau à Brás (codfish dish)
  2. Pastéis de Nata (custard tarts)
  3. Francesinha (sandwich)
  4. Caldo Verde (green soup)
  5. Arroz de Marisco (seafood rice)



  1. Borscht (beet soup)
  2. Beef Stroganoff
  3. Pelmeni (dumplings)
  4. Blini (pancakes)
  5. Olivier Salad



  1. Stroopwafels (thin waffle cookies)
  2. Bitterballen (deep-fried meatballs)
  3. Haring (raw herring)
  4. Erwtensoep (pea soup)
  5. Patat (fries with various toppings)

These are just a few examples, and each country has a rich culinary tradition with many more delicious dishes to explore!


Chinese Dishes

1. Fried rice with curry stew

2. Spaghetti with bolognaise sauce

Other Chinese dishes are:

  1. Kung Pao Chicken: A spicy stir-fry dish made with diced chicken, peanuts, vegetables, and chili peppers.
  2. Sweet and Sour Pork: Crispy battered pork pieces served with a sweet and tangy sauce, often accompanied by bell peppers, onions, and pineapple.
  3. General Tso’s Chicken: Deep-fried chicken pieces coated in a sweet and slightly spicy sauce, typically garnished with broccoli.
  4. Dim Sum: A variety of bite-sized dishes served in small steamer baskets, such as dumplings, buns, and rolls, often enjoyed during brunch.
  5. Peking Duck: A famous dish featuring roasted duck with crispy skin, usually served with thin pancakes, scallions, and hoisin sauce.
  6. Egg Fried Rice: Stir-fried rice with eggs, vegetables, and sometimes meat or shrimp, flavored with soy sauce.
  7. Ma Po Tofu: A Sichuan dish made with soft tofu and minced pork in a spicy chili and bean-based sauce.
  8. Chow Mein: Stir-fried noodles combined with vegetables, meat, and/or seafood, often flavored with soy sauce.
  9. Spring Rolls: Thin pastry filled with vegetables, meat, and sometimes shrimp, then deep-fried until crispy.
  10. Dumplings (Jiaozi): Stuffed pockets of dough filled with a mixture of meat and vegetables, usually boiled or steamed.
  11. Hot Pot: A communal meal where diners cook their own raw ingredients like thinly sliced meats, vegetables, and noodles in a simmering broth at the table.
  12. Mapo TofuAnother Sichuan specialty, it’s a spicy dish featuring tofu and minced meat in a flavorful sauce with chili and Sichuan peppercorns.
  13. Baozi: Steamed buns filled with various fillings, such as meat, vegetables, or sweet fillings.
  14. Congee: A rice porridge often served as a comfort food, with various toppings like meat, preserved eggs, or vegetables.
  15. Beef with Broccoli: Sliced beef and broccoli florets stir-fried in a savory sauce, commonly served with steamed rice.
  16. Shrimp with Lobster Sauce: A Cantonese dish featuring shrimp cooked in a fermented black bean sauce with beaten eggs.
  17. Salt and Pepper Shrimp: Crispy fried shrimp seasoned with a mixture of salt, pepper, and other spices.
  18. Szechuan Chicken: Chicken stir-fried with vegetables in a spicy and aromatic Szechuan sauce.
  19. Beggar’s Chicken: A whole chicken marinated, stuffed with various ingredients, wrapped in lotus leaves, and then baked.
  20. Steamed Fish: Whole fish is often seasoned with ginger, scallions, and soy sauce, then steamed to perfection.

These are just a few examples, and Chinese cuisine offers a wide range of dishes with diverse flavors and cooking techniques.


Indian Dishes

1. Curried beef with condiments

2. Chapatti

3. Beef shashik

4. Spaghetti with sauce

Other Indian dishes are:

  1. Biryani: A fragrant rice dish made with aromatic spices, meat (chicken, lamb, or mutton), or vegetables, often garnished with fried onions and served with raita (yogurt-based side dish).
  2. Paneer Tikka: Marinated and grilled pieces of paneer (Indian cottage cheese) served with mint chutney.
  3. Samosa: Deep-fried pastry filled with spiced potatoes, peas, and sometimes minced meat.
  4. Butter Chicken (Murgh Makhani): A creamy tomato-based curry with tender pieces of chicken, often served with naan or rice.
  5. Chole Bhature: Spiced chickpea curry (chole) served with deep-fried bread (bhature).
  6. Masala Dosa: A crispy, thin rice crepe filled with a spiced potato mixture, usually served with coconut chutney and sambar (a lentil-based vegetable stew).
  7. Tandoori Chicken: Chicken marinated in yogurt and spices, then cooked in a tandoor (clay oven).
  8. Rogan Josh: A flavorful curry made with tender pieces of meat (usually lamb), cooked with various spices.
  9. Dal Makhani: Creamy lentil dish made from black lentils and kidney beans, often flavored with butter and cream.
  10. Palak Paneer: A dish made with paneer (Indian cottage cheese) cooked in a creamy spinach gravy.
  11. Aloo Paratha: A stuffed flatbread filled with spiced mashed potatoes, usually served with yogurt or pickle.
  12. Gulab Jamun: Deep-fried milk dumplings soaked in a sugar syrup, often served as a dessert.
  13. Rice Pulao: Fragrant rice dish cooked with vegetables, spices, and sometimes meat or nuts.
  14. Chicken Tikka Masala: Grilled pieces of chicken cooked in a creamy tomato-based sauce with spices.
  15. Vada Pav: A popular street food, consisting of a spicy potato fritter served in a bun.
  16. Pani Puri/Golgappa: Hollow, crispy puris filled with spiced tamarind water, potatoes, chickpeas, and chutneys.
  17. Malai Kofta: Deep-fried vegetable or paneer balls served in a creamy tomato-based gravy.
  18. Idli: Steamed rice cakes, typically served with sambar and coconut chutney.
  19. Rasgulla: Soft cottage cheese balls soaked in sugar syrup, a popular dessert.
  20. Matar Paneer: A curry made with paneer and green peas, cooked in a tomato-based gravy.

These are just a few examples of the diverse and delicious dishes you can find in Indian cuisine. Keep in mind that Indian cuisine varies greatly based on region, culture, and personal preferences.


Japanese Dishes

1. Chicken sauce chasseur

2. Beef olives

3. Mixed grill

4. Spanish omelets


Other popular Japanese dishes:

  1. Sushi: Vinegared rice topped with various ingredients such as fish, seafood, and vegetables.
  2. Sashimi: Slices of fresh raw fish or seafood served without rice.
  3. Ramen: Japanese noodle soup dish with Chinese origins, typically containing wheat noodles, broth, and various toppings.
  4. Tempura: Deep-fried battered seafood, vegetables, or other ingredients.
  5. Udon: Thick wheat noodles served in a savory broth, often with toppings.
  6. Teriyaki: Grilled or broiled dishes, usually meat or fish, glazed with a sweet and savory teriyaki sauce.
  7. Tonkatsu: Breaded and deep-fried pork cutlet, often served with cabbage and a thick sauce.
  8. Sukiyaki: A hot pot dish featuring thinly sliced beef, vegetables, tofu, and noodles cooked in a sweet soy-based broth.
  9. Okonomiyaki: A savory pancake made with batter, cabbage, and various ingredients, often topped with mayo and bonito flakes.
  10. Yakitori: Skewered and grilled chicken pieces, typically seasoned with a special sauce.
  11. Miso Soup: A traditional soup made with miso paste, tofu, seaweed, and other ingredients.
  12. Onigiri: Rice balls often wrapped in seaweed and filled with various fillings like pickled plum, fish, or vegetables.
  13. Chirashi-zushi: A type of sushi where a bowl of seasoned rice is topped with a variety of sashimi and other ingredients.
  14. Gyoza: Japanese dumplings filled with a mixture of ground meat and vegetables, usually pan-fried.
  15. Yakiniku: Grilled meat, often beef, pork, or chicken, cooked at the table and served with dipping sauces.
  16. Chawanmushi: A savory egg custard dish containing ingredients like seafood, chicken, and vegetables.
  17. Nigiri: Hand-pressed sushi consisting of a small mound of vinegared rice with a slice of raw fish or other toppings on top.
  18. Oden: A winter stew with various ingredients like boiled eggs, daikon radish, fish cakes, and konjac, simmered in a soy-based broth.
  19. Zaru Soba: Cold buckwheat noodles served on a bamboo tray with a dipping sauce.
  20. Donburi: A dish where a bowl of rice is topped with various ingredients like beef (gyudon), tempura (tendon), or raw fish (tekka-don).

These are just a few examples, as Japanese cuisine is incredibly diverse and has many more delicious dishes to explore!



  1. Foods for special occasions

Various Types of Occasions (Parties)

There are a multitude of parties, each with its unique purpose and theme, bringing people together for celebration. Let’s explore some common party types and their corresponding cuisines:

  1. Birthday Celebration: An occasion to honor someone’s birth, ranging from intimate gatherings to larger events with friends and family.
  2. Costume Gala: Guests don imaginative outfits according to a specified theme, resulting in a festive and playful atmosphere.
  3. Housewarming Get-Together: A warm reception for someone moving into a new home, where well-wishers visit and offer their congratulations.
  4. Graduation Bash: Recognizing educational accomplishments and marking the start of a new chapter in life.
  5. Elegant Cocktail Soiree: Attendees mingle over cocktails and delectable hors d’oeuvres, creating an atmosphere of sophistication.
  6. Themed Extravaganza: Parties centered around specific concepts, such as masquerade balls or retro themes, influencing the decor, costumes, and activities.
  7. Formal Dinner Affair: A sit-down feast, either formal or semi-formal, fostering conversation and camaraderie.
  8. Holiday Festivity: Celebrations coinciding with holidays, incorporating festive decor, traditions, and themed activities.
  9. Surprise Gathering: A secretive event organized to pleasantly shock the guest of honor, usually for birthdays or special occasions.
  10. **Refreshing Pool Party: Hosted by or near a pool, these events offer relaxation and aquac amusement, especially popular during warm seasons.
  11. Children’s Themed Party: Designed for kids, these parties reflect their interests, often featuring games, crafts, and age-appropriate entertainment.
  12. Engagement Jubilation: A celebration of a couple’s engagement, embracing well wishes and commemorating their forthcoming wedding.
  13. Wedding Ceremony: Carefully orchestrated celebrations where various dishes like jollof rice, fried rice, chicken stew, and cake are served to honor the union.
  14. Awojoh (Burial Ceremony): A remembrance ceremony featuring a spread including black-eyed peas, meats, palm oil-based dishes, and various local delicacies.
  15. **Luncheon and Dinner Functions**: Formal or informal events held to mark specific milestones, characterized by a range of dishes served based on the time of day.

These parties each demand careful planning to ensure success, especially when catering to larger numbers of attendees.


Party Food and drinks

From appetizers to main courses, parties boast a variety of culinary offerings, including:

  1. Appetizers: Fruit cups, fruit juices, shrimp, sardines, and salted nuts to tantalize taste buds.
  2. Soups: An assortment including thin soup, vegetable soup, and flavorful pepper soup.
  3. Fish Delights An array of fish preparations, from fried to steamed, as well as sumptuous fish stews.
  4. Cereal Selections: A range of grains like rice, corn, and millet, incorporated in different dishes.
  5. Pulses Palate: Nutrient-rich options like beans, lentils, and peas, often paired with vegetables.


The selection of dishes often varies depending on the type of party, the time of day, and the cultural preferences of the hosts and guests.




Theme 4    Food Preparation, Storage and Preservation  

  1. Beverages

Beverages encompass liquids other than water that are consumed to invigorate, nurture, and reinvigorate the body, while also catering to taste preferences. These drinks can be categorized into alcoholic and non-alcoholic varieties.

Types of Beverages

Alcoholic Beverages

Non-alcoholic Beverages



These beverages comprise those that contain varying percentages of ethyl alcohol, typically ranging from 1% to 75%. They are derived either from fermenting sugar-rich foods or distilling fermented products, resulting in spirits, liqueurs, beer, cider, wine, and even traditional local African brews like “burukutu.” Alcohol is the product of fermenting or distilling ethanol, a type of sugar found in intoxicating drinks. It also serves as fuel and finds use in thermometers. Alcohol exists in two primary forms:


  1. Fermentation: Bacteria convert sugar in fruits or grains into alcohol. Carbon dioxide, a byproduct, contributes to the effervescence in beverages like beer and champagne.


  1. Distillation: The fermented mixture of fruits or grains is heated. Alcohol, with a lower evaporation temperature than water, vaporizes and is then condensed back into liquid form through cooling. Pure distilled alcohol lacks color, taste, or aroma and is used to fortify other beverages like liqueurs.


Alcoholic Beverages Encompass:

  1. Spirits
  2. Liqueurs
  3. Beer
  4. Cider and Wine
  5. Traditional local beers, e.g., pito, burukutu



These are liquids with a considerable amount of distilled ethanol, containing drinkable alcohol derived from distillation, which involves esters, volatile acids, or organic compounds. Classification is determined by the source of sugar for alcohol conversion, such as grains (barley, maize, rye, corn) for whisky and liqueurs, vegetables (potatoes) for vodka, and fruits (sugar cane, grape, apricot, juniper berries) for rum, brandy, liqueurs, gin, and bitters.


  1. Brandy: Distilled from fermented grape or other fruit juices.
  2. Gin: Produced from cereals like maize or rye, flavored with juniper berries and coriander seeds.
  3. Vodka: Highly purified, colorless, and flavorless spirit often passed through charcoal for refinement.
  4. Whisky: Made from fermented cereals like maize, malted barley, and rye, aged in wood.
  5. Rum: Derived from fermented sugar cane byproducts, classified into white and dark types.
  6. Schnapps: Distilled from fermented potato base, often flavored with caraway seeds.



This alcoholic drink results from fermenting apple juice or a mix of apple and pear juices.


An alcoholic beverage produced by fermenting barley malt and flavored with hops. Alcohol content typically ranges from 3% to 5%.


Sweetened and flavored spirits, enhanced with various ingredients like black currants, caraway, citrus, nutmeg, cinnamon, and almond kernels.



  1. Heat/Infusion Method: This involves the utilization of heat to extract oils, flavors, and aromas from herbs, peels, and roots.
  2. Cold/Maceration Method: Particularly effective for soft fruits, this method involves extracting flavors and aromas through maceration without heat.



  1. Bailey’s Irish Cream: A renowned liqueur available in coffee and honey or chocolate and cream variants.
  2. Cointreau: A clear liqueur crafted from oranges or brandy, contributing to its flavor and spirit base.
  3. Malibu: A transparent liqueur infused with coconut or rum for its distinctive flavor.
  4. Maraschino: A clear Italian liqueur made using maraschino cherry for flavor and spirit base.
  5. Tia Maria: A brown-hued liqueur with coffee and rum as its flavor components.


Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the fermentation of freshly harvested grapes. With a history spanning over 6000 years, it is created in numerous regions across the globe.


  1. Table/Still/Light Wine: The most extensive wine category with an alcohol content ranging from 7% to 14%. Varieties include red, white, and rosé wines.
  2. White Wine: Made from white grape juice, fermented separately from the skins.
  3. Red Wine: Produced by fermenting grapes with the skins, resulting in a dry wine typically served at room temperature.
  4. Rosé Wine: Derived from black grape fermentation with skin contact, blending red and white wines, or by pressing grapes for color extraction.
  5. Sparkling Wine: These wines undergo a process to create carbonation, either through pressure or re-fermentation, resulting in effervescence. Champagne is a well-known example.
  6. Fortified Wine: Alcohol is added during or after fermentation to increase alcohol content from 14% to 24%. Examples include Sherry, Marsala, Malaga, and Madeira.
  7. Aromatized Wine: Basic wines are flavored with blends of ingredients, yielding a variety of aromatized wines like different types of vermouth and dubonnet, often enjoyed as aperitifs.



  1. Climate and Microclimate.
  2. Soil and Subsoil Composition.
  3. Vine Family and Grape Species.
  4. Cultivation Methods and Viticulture.
  5. Grape Composition.
  6. Yeast and Fermentation.
  7. Wine-Making Techniques (Vinification).
  8. Vintage Characteristics.
  9. Aging and Maturation Process.
  10. Shipping and Transportation Methods.
  11. Storage Temperature.



  1. Harvesting: Ripe grapes are collected for wine production.
  2. Sorting and Preparation: Harvested grapes are sorted by color and quality, with damaged ones discarded.
  3. Crushing/Pressing: Grapes are weighed and crushed to extract juice. For white wines, the skin is excluded, while for red wines, it’s included. Crushing can be manual or mechanical.
  4. Sulphuring: Sulphur dioxide is added early in fermentation to prevent oxidation.
  5. Fermentation: Natural sugar in grapes transforms into alcohol and carbon dioxide via yeast action. Fermentation duration varies with temperature.
  6. Maturation: Wine matures in containers to enhance flavor. Evaporation requires topping off. Maturation can occur in casks or bottles.



  1. Corked Wine: Bacteria or aged corks cause undesirable flavors.
  2. Secondary Fermentation: Leftover sugar and yeast create an off-putting prickly taste.
  3. Cloudiness: Suspended particles in wine cause cloudiness.
  4. Foreign Contamination: Glass fragments due to bottling issues.
  5. Maderization/Oxidation: Excessive air exposure from poor storage.
  6. Acetification: Overexposure to air results in a sour taste.
  7. Excess SO2: Excessive sulphur-dioxide negatively impacts wine.



  1. Sommelier Knowledge: A sommelier must know wines on the list and their pairings.
  2. Guidelines for Serving Wine:
  3. Accurate description without bluffing.
  4. Serve wine before food promptly.
  5. Correct serving temperature.
  6. Demonstrate respect for wine and skill.
  7. Pour with care, avoiding splashing.
  8. Moderate glass filling.
  9. Avoid unnecessary topping up.
  10. Serve chilled white and sparkling wines.
  11. Match white with seafood, red with meat, rose with any food.
  12. Pair white wine with sweet dishes or sauces.



  1. Present Wine List: Offer the list upon food order.
  2. Check and Prepare: Verify the order and gather the wine.
  3. Presentation: Place the wine bottle in an ice bucket on a stand.
  4. Bottle Display: Present the bottle with the label visible.
  5. Wipe Condensation: Use a napkin to remove water from the bottle.
  6. Foil Removal: Use a wine knife to cut the foil below the rim.
  7. Cork Handling: Place cork on a side plate for high-quality wines.
  8. Bottle Prepping: Wipe the inside and outside of the bottle neck.
  9. Pouring: Hold the bottle for pouring, showing the label.
  10. Tasting: Offer a taste to the host.
  11. Serving Order: Serve ladies first, then gentlemen and host.
  12. Glass Filling: Fill glasses two-thirds full.
  13. Ending Pour: Twist and raise the bottle to prevent drips.
  14. Replenishing: Refill glasses when needed.



Rechauffe (leftover cookery)

Meaning of Rechauffé:

“Rechauffé” is a culinary term that originates from French and translates to “reheated” or “warmed up.” It refers to the practice of taking previously cooked and leftover food items, often from a previous meal, and using them to create new dishes. Rechauffé involves transforming these leftovers into new, flavorful, and creative meals by adding additional ingredients or altering the cooking process.


  1. Use of Left-Over Food for Making New Dishes:

Using leftover food to make new dishes is a practical and sustainable culinary approach. Instead of discarding unused portions of meals, these leftovers can be repurposed to create delicious and diverse recipes. This not only minimizes food waste but also adds a layer of creativity to cooking, as it challenges chefs and home cooks to reimagine and transform existing ingredients into something new and exciting.


  1. Rechauffé of Meat:

Rechauffé of meat involves taking leftover cooked meat, such as roasted or grilled meats, and reimagining them into new dishes. For example, leftover roasted chicken could be shredded and used as a filling for tacos or added to a salad. Leftover meat can also be incorporated into casseroles, stews, soups, or sandwiches, along with complementary vegetables, herbs, and seasonings, to create new and flavorful meals.

When rechaufféing meat, it’s important to preserve its flavor and texture. Leftover cooked meat like beef, pork, or lamb can be transformed into sandwiches, wraps, or salads. For example, pulled pork can be used in sliders with coleslaw, and sliced steak can be added to a hearty sandwich with caramelized onions and melted cheese. Leftover meat can also be added to pasta dishes, such as a rich beef ragu for spaghetti.


  1. Rechauffé of Vegetable:

Leftover cooked vegetables can be easily transformed into various new dishes. They can be blended into soups or purees, added to omelets or frittatas, incorporated into stir-fries or fried rice, or used as fillings for wraps or sandwiches. Combining different types of leftover vegetables with fresh ingredients allows for an array of textures and flavors in the new dish.

Leftover cooked vegetables, such as carrots, broccoli, or bell peppers, can be repurposed creatively. They can be blended into creamy soups or incorporated into quiches and savory tarts. Roasted vegetables can be combined with cooked grains like quinoa or couscous to create flavorful grain bowls. Leftover grilled vegetables are excellent additions to panini sandwiches or as toppings for homemade pizzas.


  1. Rechauffé of Fish:

Rechauffé of fish involves reusing leftover cooked fish in innovative ways. Fish can be flaked and used to make fish cakes, added to pasta dishes, turned into fish tacos, or combined with vegetables to create flavorful fish stews or chowders. The delicate nature of fish requires careful handling during reheating to prevent overcooking and maintain its tender texture.

Rechauffé of fish requires gentle handling to prevent overcooking. Leftover cooked fish can be flaked and mixed with breadcrumbs, herbs, and egg to make fish patties or fish cakes. These can be served with a zesty dipping sauce. Fish can also be added to salads, like a tuna or salmon salad, or used as a filling for soft tacos with fresh salsa and avocado slices.


  1. Rechauffé of Other Foods:

Beyond meat, vegetables, and fish, the concept of rechauffé can be applied to other types of leftover food. For instance, leftover grains like rice can be transformed into fried rice, and pasta can be turned into pasta salads or baked pasta dishes. Stale bread can be used to make croutons or bread pudding, and excess fruit can be incorporated into smoothies, jams, or desserts.


In summary, rechauffé is a culinary technique that encourages the creative use of leftover food to create new dishes. By combining leftovers with fresh ingredients and imaginative cooking methods, chefs and home cooks can minimize food waste while delighting in unique and flavorful meals.



  1. Food study: Meats

Meat refers to the muscular tissue derived from animals following their slaughter. It is composed of bundles of muscle fibers, each fiber containing water, protein, various salts, and extractives. These fibers are interconnected by connective tissues and tendons, attaching them to the animal’s bones.


White meat, such as veal, rabbit, and chicken, has a lower texture with less fat and connective tissue. In contrast, red meat, found in pork, beef, and lamb, contains more fat and connective tissue, offering richer flavor. Lean meat denotes the portion with minimal fat, lacking excess fatty tissue.



Proteins: The primary nutrient in meat is protein, of high quality due to its abundance in essential amino acids in ideal proportions, facilitating easy absorption and utilization by the body.

Vitamins: Meat serves as a valuable source of B-complex vitamins like riboflavin, nicotinic acid, and thiamine. Fatty meats, like pork, are also rich in Vitamins A and D.

Minerals: Meat is abundant in mineral elements like sulfur, calcium, and phosphorus.

Fat: Fat is present within the connective tissues between meat fibers. While pork, ham, and bacon contain more fat, they have lower protein content compared to lean meat.

Water: The water percentage varies across meat types, but all varieties contain some water.



  1. Beef from cattle
  2. Mutton from sheep
  3. Lamb from young sheep
  4. Veal from calves
  5. Game from wild animals like rabbits, antelope, deer, and birds
  6. Pork, ham, bacon from pigs
  7. Lard: pure white pig fat.



  1. Head
  2. Neck
  3. Chuck
  4. Rib Roast
  5. Wing-end sirloin
  6. Sirloin or T-Bone Steak
  7. Diamond Bone Steak
  8. Rump Steak
  9. Aitch-Bone
  10. Lap
  11. Brisket
  12. Housekeeper’s Cut
  13. Shoulder’s Ring
  14. Button-end
  15. Shin Beef
  16. Ox Tongue
  17. Oxtail
  18. Round
  19. Leg Beef.



Several cooking methods suit different types of meat cuts, determined by both the cut’s nature and the intended culinary use. These methods include:

  1. Boiling
  2. Frying
  3. Stewing
  4. Roasting
  5. Broiling
  6. Braising
  7. Steaming



Roasting           | Ribs, Wing-end of sirloin, Sirloin, Diamond Bone, Housekeeper’s cut

Frying                | Neck, Chuck, Sirloin, Diamond Bone, Lap, Brisket, Shoulder’s Ring, Rump, Shin Beef, Round

Braising              | Round steak, Chuck, Housekeeper’s cut

Boiling                | Lap, Aitch-bone, Ox tongue, Round, Button-end

Broiling               | Sirloin, Rib

Steaming            | Round, Shin Beef, Housekeeper’s cut, Shoulder Rings



Offal refers to the edible internal organs of animals, including the liver, kidneys, tripe, sweetbread, tongue, brain, and lungs. These organs provide high-quality protein, mineral elements, and vitamins. Offal is perishable and should be cooked promptly if refrigeration is unavailable. Thorough cleaning before cooking is essential, and freshness is crucial when purchasing offal.



  1. Poultry

Poultry refers to meat derived from some domesticated birds such as fowls, guinea fowls, turkeys, ducks and pigeons. The composition and nutritive value of poultry is similar to that of meat from animals. In poultry, especially fowls and turkeys, the fat lies under the skin and around the giblet; it is not embedded between the fibres as in meat. Poultry has lower fat content than meat and is therefore more easily digested than meat.

Poultry can be classified in two: white meat and dark meat, the white meat consists of meat derived from the breast and wings of the bird while the dark meat refers to those gotten from the legs. The white meat is more digestible than the dark meat, this is because the dark meat is more muscular and of coarser fibre because of the greater muscular activity of the legs.



Species: Chickens 

Young:  Young chicken, broiler, fryer, roaster, cockrel 

Mature: Mature chicken, hen, stewing chicken, fowl

Species: Turkeys 

Young:  Young turkey, fryer-toaster, young hen      

Mature:  Mature turkey, yearling turkey, old turkey

Species:  Ducks    

Young:  Duckling, young duckling, broiler duckling, fryer duckling, roaster duckling

Mature: Mature duck, old ducks



Protein: like meat, poultry flesh is rich in protein of good quality. It is a 1st protein that contains all the essential amino acid.

Fat: poultry have little fat, but the fat lies under the skin and around the giblet, especially fowls and turkeys. It is not embedded between the fibres as in meat.

Vitamins: poultry have small quantity of the B-Complex vitamins but less nicotinic acid around the legs of the bird than the breast.

Water: poultry meat virtually contains water.

Minerals Salts: the flesh of poultry contains iron and phosphorus.



There should be plenty of down feathers over the body of the bird. The quills on the wings should not be difficult to remove. There should be no long hair on the thigh.

  1. The comb and wattles should be small, bright red in colour.
  2. The legs should be smooth and pliable; the scales of the legs should not be thick but slightly overlapping.
  3. The feet should be supple and the beak pliable.
  4. The breast should be plump. The prominent bones e.g back bone should be covered with flesh.
  5. The weight of the body should be more than that of the feathers.
  6. The eyes of the bird should be bright and sparkling.
  7. The bird should not look dull but lively.
  8. There should be no grains of corn in the crop.



The birds should be killed at least one hour before cooking. This is to allow sometimes for hanging until the period of ‘Rigor Motis’ is passed. After killing the bird, its carcass becomes stiff, rigid and difficult to bend. This stage is what is known as ‘Rigor Mortis’. However, after sometimes all the muscles relax again, at this stage, ‘Rigor Mortis’ is passed. The flesh of the poultry usually becomes more tender after passing this stage. If the intention is to make the poultry very tender, the carcass can be suspended by the feet in a cool dry place for another one to two hours. After this, the bird is then immersed in boiling water. A cup can be used to pour the boiling water all over the body. The feathers should be plucked quickly without allowing it to cool. If the bird is very young, do not dip in boiling water, pluck it dry, but if the wing feathers are difficult to remove, dip the tips of the bird in boiling water and they will come off easily.


After the feathers have been removed, singe over a smokeless fire to remove long hairs. Cut off the head and feet, If these are required, remove the scales from the feet and feathers from the head. Cut off the nails and beak. Wash the bird well with a clean sponge and some soap, wash twice if necessary and rinse each time after washing. Rinse well to remove any trace of soap. Cut at the joint, cut off the legs and the thighs then the wings and the neck. Cut down the breast bone and remove the internal organs, put this on the plate. Cut the body into the number of pieces desired. Carefully remove the gizzard, slit open at the side and remove inner bag and discard. Cut off the liver, being careful not to burst the gall bladder, remove the part and discard the rest of the internal organ.







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