World Settlement

A settlement is characterized as an area containing one or more structures inhabited by people, which may take the form of a city, village, or compound. Favorable Conditions for Selecting A Settlement Location: Sufficient water supply Fertile soil Availability of low and well-drained land A well-established communication network Defense/protection for human habitation. Factors influencing the […]

A settlement is characterized as an area containing one or more structures inhabited by people, which may take the form of a city, village, or compound.

Favorable Conditions for Selecting A Settlement Location:

  1. Sufficient water supply
  2. Fertile soil
  3. Availability of low and well-drained land
  4. A well-established communication network
  5. Defense/protection for human habitation.

Factors influencing the growth of settlements

Factors influencing the growth of settlements, whether towns, cities, or states, leading to urbanization, encompass:

  1. Accessibility by various modes of transportation
  2. Presence of economic activities such as trade, agriculture, and mining
  3. Effective administration or seat of government
  4. Provision of social amenities like piped water and electricity
  5. Favorable soil conditions supporting intensive agriculture
  6. Absence of disasters
  7. Political stability
  8. Relief and drainage
  9. Favorable climatic conditions.

 

Settlements are classified into two main types:

(a) Rural settlements

(b) Urban settlements

 

(1) Rural Settlements

  1. A rural settlement is a relatively small area with socially homogeneous people who share the same cultural background and language.
  2. Rural settlements can be nucleated, dispersed, or linear.
  3. Typically engaged in primary activities such as farming, fishing, hunting, and lumbering.
  4. Simple lifestyle with limited social amenities.
  5. May consist of homesteads, hamlets, or villages, each with distinct characteristics.

 

(2) Urban Settlements

  1. An urban settlement is a relatively large, densely populated area with socially heterogeneous people.
  2. Nucleated in nature, comprising many buildings and thousands of inhabitants.
  3. Engaged mainly in secondary activities such as manufacturing, construction, and banking.
  4. Four major types of urban settlements are town, city, conurbation, and megalopolis.

Functions of urban settlements include industrial, commercial, administrative, socio-cultural, mining, and residential activities.

 

Settlements can also be classified based on their pattern or shape:

(1) Dispersed settlements: Buildings scattered far from each other, mainly involved in primary activities, and often rural in nature.

(2) Linear settlements: Buildings located along routes like roads, railways, or rivers, extending over several kilometers, influenced by factors like transport network and accessibility.

(3) Nucleated settlements: Buildings concentrated in a small area, with high levels of interaction among inhabitants, commonly found in urban areas due to factors such as social ties, infrastructure development, defense, communication, and commercial development.

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