Vitamins

Vitamins are essential organic compounds needed by the body in small quantities. They can be categorized into two main groups: Water-soluble vitamins: These vitamins dissolve in water and include the B complex (B1, B2, B6, B12, B15, folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Fat-soluble vitamins: These vitamins can dissolve in […]

Vitamins are essential organic compounds needed by the body in small quantities. They can be categorized into two main groups:

  1. Water-soluble vitamins: These vitamins dissolve in water and include the B complex (B1, B2, B6, B12, B15, folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
  2. Fat-soluble vitamins: These vitamins can dissolve in fat and oil, including A, D, E, and K (ADEK).

Some vitamins can be synthesized from other substances, known as pro-vitamins, while certain substances can interfere with vitamin utilization and are called anti-vitamins.

Now, let’s look at specific vitamins:

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):

  1. Functions: Promotes growth, increases appetite, and is involved in energy release.
  2. Prevents beriberi.
  3. Food sources: Whole cereals, nuts, legumes, pork, offal, etc.

 

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):

  1. Functions: Involved in energy release, assists in red blood cell formulation, and promotes growth.
  2. Food sources: Whole cereals, offal, milk, legumes, cheese, eggs, yeast, leafy vegetables.

 

Vitamin B3 (Niacin):

  1. Functions: Improves appetite, supports skin and nerve function, and participates in energy release.
  2. Food sources: Meat, legumes, nuts, fish, eggs, whole cereals, yeast.

 

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid):

  1. Functions: Essential for carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
  2. Food sources: Legumes, milk, whole cereals, yeast, offal, fish, eggs, lean meat, and cheese.

 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):

  1. Functions: Assists in antibody formation, synthesizes genetic material, and acts as a co-enzyme in metabolism.
  2. Food sources: Whole cereals, leafy vegetables, legumes, fish, nuts, offals, meat, milk, and eggs.

 

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin):

  1. Functions: Assists in red blood cell formation and prevents anemia.
  2. Food sources: Fish, meat, liver, kidney, offals, milk.

 

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid):

  1. Functions: Formation of collagen, prevents scurvy and colds, promotes wound healing, and supports adrenal gland formation.
  2. Responsible for maintaining connecting tissues.
  3. Food sources: Fresh fruits (citrus fruits), eggs, mangoes, oranges, watermelon, guava, black currants, green leafy vegetables, okra, tomatoes, cabbage, spinach.

 

Fat-Soluble Vitamins:

Vitamin A (Retinol):

  1. Functions: Aids bright vision, develops healthy skin, essential for normal growth, and maintains internal membrane lining.

 

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol):

  1. Functions: Enhances calcium and phosphorus absorption, and promotes strong bones and teeth development.
  2. Food sources: Milk, dairy products, fish, eggs, yams, palm oil, margarine, exposure to sunlight.

 

Vitamin E (Tocopherol):

  1. Functions: Acts as an antioxidant, particularly in fats and oils, serves as an anti-sterility factor, aids iron absorption.
  2. Food sources: Whole cereals, green leafy vegetables, eggs, liver, milk, margarine.

Related Posts:

Fats And Oils

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Relationship between Food and Nutrition to other Subjects

Career Opportunities Available in Food and Nutrition

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