Transportation | Land. Rail, Air, Water, Meaning, Problems, Uses, Solutions

Transportation is characterized as the movement of people, goods, and commodities from one location to another, whether by land, water, or air. Types of Transportation Land Transport: This pertains to the movement of people and goods over land. Methods of land transportation include: Human portage: Utilizing human legs for movement, such as walking, especially for […]

Transportation is characterized as the movement of people, goods, and commodities from one location to another, whether by land, water, or air.

Types of Transportation

Land Transport:

This pertains to the movement of people and goods over land. Methods of land transportation include:

  1. Human portage: Utilizing human legs for movement, such as walking, especially for shorter distances.
  2. Animal portage: Employing animals like horses, donkeys, or camels for transportation, particularly prevalent in northern Nigeria.
  3. Road transport: Utilizing motor vehicles, buses, motorcycles, lorries, and trucks for movement.

Road Transport:

In Nigeria, roads are categorized into three types:

  1. Trunk A Roads: Federally constructed and maintained roads, usually dual carriage or express roads connecting federal and state capitals.
  2. Trunk B Roads: State-government-maintained roads linking different areas within a state.
  3. Trunk C (local) roads: Local government-constructed and maintained roads, often untarred in Nigeria.

 

Advantages of Road Transportation:

  1. Common and widespread.
  2. Provides door-to-door services.
  3. Ensures availability of goods in remote areas.
  4. Complements water, rail, and air transportation.

 

Disadvantages of Road Transportation:

  1. Expensive to construct and maintain.
  2. Challenging construction during the rainy season.
  3. Limited capacity for goods and passengers.
  4. Prone to accidents.
  5. Requires daily maintenance.

 

Limitations of Road Transportation:

  1. Presence of highlands and rugged relief.
  2. Swampy areas.
  3. Soil erosion due to heavy rain.
  4. Lack of financial resources for construction and maintenance.

 

Solutions:

  1. Construct roads in lowlands, passes, or gaps around mountain areas.
  2. Build flyovers in marshy areas.
  3. Construct bridges across rivers.
  4. Allocate funds for road maintenance.

 

Rail Transport:

Transportation by rail, mainly using narrow gauge railway lines in Nigeria.

Advantages of Rail Transport:

  1. Convenient for transporting bulky goods.
  2. Cost-effective.
  3. Suitable for long-distance travel.
  4. Opens up new lands.

 

Disadvantages of Rail Transport:

  1. High construction and maintenance costs.
  2. Slowest means of transport, not ideal for perishable goods.
  3. Time-consuming with frequent stops and passenger changes.
  4. Depends on roads for passenger access.

 

Limitations of Rail Transport:

  1. Slow speed.
  2. Low patronage and competition with other transport modes.
  3. Lack of spare parts and funding.
  4. Inadequate technical expertise.

 

Solutions:

  1. Develop a modern rail system with wide gauges and multiple tracks.
  2. Provide training for rail maintenance.
  3. Ensure proper funding.
  4. Make spare parts available.
  5. Offer affordable railway fares to attract passengers.

 

Air Transport:

Involves moving people, goods, and services by air using airplanes, helicopters, jets, and rockets. Two types of airports are International and Local/Domestic.

Advantages of Air Transport:

  1. Fastest means of transport.
  2. Direct routes.
  3. Accessibility to remote locations.
  4. Efficient for urgent shipments.
  5. Can traverse obstacles like mountains, forests, and oceans.

 

Disadvantages of Air Transport:

  1. Expensive operation and maintenance.
  2. High cost overall.
  3. Vulnerable to bad weather affecting visibility.
  4. Safety concerns, including crashes and hijacking.

 

Limitations of Air Transport:

  1. Limited capital for airport construction.
  2. Challenges in procuring spare parts.
  3. Weather hazards.
  4. Low patronage due to high costs.
  5. Poor management and security concerns.

 

Solutions:

  1. Seek loans for airport and airplane maintenance.
  2. Procure spare parts.
  3. Implement efficient management practices.

 

Water Transport:

Movement of people, goods, and services by water, divided into Ocean navigation and Inland water navigation.

 

Advantages of Water Transport:

  1. Cheapest means of international transport.
  2. Oceans are open for global use.
  3. Ideal for moving bulky goods internationally.
  4. Low construction and maintenance costs.
  5. Suitable for long-distance transport.
  6. Relatively safe.

 

Disadvantages of Water Transport:

  1. Slowest compared to air and land transport.
  2. High cost of acquiring ships.
  3. Expensive ship parts, construction, and maintenance.
  4. Lack of technical expertise.

 

Limitations of Water Transport:

  1. Obstacles like waterfalls, rapids, and cataracts limit river use.
  2. Floating vegetation.
  3. Limited to countries with coastlines and ports.
  4. Seasonality and shallowness of rivers.
  5. Sea sickness.

 

Solutions:

  1. Regularly dredge rivers.
  2. Provide loans for seaport construction and maintenance.
  3. Enhance medical facilities on board.
  4. Construct canals to bypass waterfalls and cataracts.

 

Contribution of Transportation To The Economic Development of Nigeria:

  1. Movement of goods and services.
  2. Movement of people.
  3. Specific purposes, such as air transport for surveys.
  4. National and international trade.
  5. Opening up new lands.
  6. National integration.
  7. Development of tourism.
  8. Revenue generation.

 

Problems of Transportation:

Physical factors:

  1. Presence of highlands.
  2. Long distances.
  3. Marshy areas.
  4. Many rivers.
  5. Soil erosion.
  6. Poor visibility.

 

Human factors:

  1. Lack of capital.
  2. Lack of technical know-how.
  3. Low patronage.
  4. Bad roads.

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