Transportation And Industry

Transportation in Nigeria involves the movement of people, goods, and commodities from one place to another by land, water, or air.   Land Transport: Human portage: Involves using human legs for movement, such as trekking, applicable for short distances. Animal portage: Involves using animals like horses, donkeys, or camels for movement, common in the northern […]

Transportation in Nigeria involves the movement of people, goods, and commodities from one place to another by land, water, or air.

 

Land Transport:

  1. Human portage: Involves using human legs for movement, such as trekking, applicable for short distances.
  2. Animal portage: Involves using animals like horses, donkeys, or camels for movement, common in the northern part of Nigeria.
  3. Road Transport: Involves the use of motor cars, buses, motorcycles, lorries, and trucks.

 

Advantages of Road Transportation:

  1. Common means of transportation.
  2. Provides door-to-door services.
  3. Makes goods available in scarce areas.
  4. Feeds water, rail, and air transportation.

 

Disadvantages of Road Transportation:

  1. Expensive to construct and maintain.
  2. Difficult construction, especially in the rainy season.
  3. Limited capacity for goods and passengers.
  4. Prone to accidents.
  5. Requires daily maintenance.

 

Limitations of Road Transportation:

  1. Presence of highlands and rugged relief.
  2. Presence of swampy areas.
  3. Soil erosion caused by heavy rain.
  4. Lack of finance for road construction and maintenance.

 

Rail Transport:

– Involves transportation by rail using trains, mainly utilizing narrow gauge railway lines.

 

Advantages of Rail Transport:

  1. Convenient for transporting bulky goods.
  2. Cost-effective.
  3. Can cover long distances.
  4. Helps open up new lands.

 

Disadvantages of Rail Transport:

  1. High cost of construction and maintenance.
  2. Slow compared to other means.
  3. Stopping at each station wastes time.
  4. Depends on roads for passenger feed.

 

Limitations of Rail Transport:

  1. Slowness.
  2. Low patronage and competition.
  3. Lack of spare parts and narrow gauge.
  4. Inadequate funding and technical know-how.

 

Air Transport:

Involves movement by air using airplanes, helicopters, jets, and rockets.

 

Advantages of Air Transport:

  1. Fastest means of transport.
  2. Uses direct routes.
  3. Can reach anywhere with landing facilities.
  4. Suitable for urgent shipments.
  5. Easily crosses obstacles like mountains and large oceans.

 

Disadvantages of Air Transport:

  1. Expensive operation and maintenance.
  2. Highly expensive overall.
  3. Affected by bad weather.
  4. Safety concerns with plane crashes and hijacking.

 

Limitations of Air Transport:

  1. Limited capital for airport construction.
  2. Inadequate spare parts.
  3. Weather hazards.
  4. Low patronage due to cost.
  5. Poor management and inadequate security.

 

Solutions for Air Transport:

  1. Source loans for airport and airplane maintenance.
  2. Procure spare parts.
  3. Ensure efficient management.
  4. Keep airfare affordable to attract passengers.

 

Water Transport:

Involves the movement of people, goods, and services by water, divided into ocean and inland water navigation.

 

Advantages of Water Transport:

  1. Cheapest means between countries.
  2. Oceans are free for all nations to use.
  3. Ideal for moving bulky goods internationally.
  4. Low construction and maintenance costs.
  5. Suitable for long-distance transport.
  6. Relatively safe.

 

Disadvantages of Water Transport:

  1. Slow compared to air and land.
  2. High cost of acquiring ships and their parts.
  3. Limited technical know-how.

 

Limitations of Water Transport:

  1. Presence of waterfalls, rapids, and cataracts.
  2. Presence of floating vegetation.
  3. Limited usefulness in landlocked countries.
  4. Seasonality of rivers.
  5. Shallowness of rivers.
  6. Sea sickness.

 

Solutions for Water Transport:

  1. Regular dredging of rivers.
  2. Grants for seaport construction and maintenance.
  3. Improvement of medical facilities on board.
  4. Construction of canals to bypass obstacles.

 

Contributions of Transportation to Nigeria’s Economic Development:

  1. Movement of goods and services.
  2. Movement of people.
  3. Specific purposes like surveying.
  4. National and international trade.
  5. Opening up of new lands and areas.
  6. National integration.
  7. Development of tourism.
  8. Employment.
  9. Generation of revenue.

 

Problems of Transportation:

  1. Physical factors include highlands, marshy areas, soil erosion, and poor visibility.
  2. Human factors include lack of capital, technical know-how, low patronage, and bad roads.

 

Industries in Nigeria:

Manufacturing industries transform raw materials into new products through mechanical or chemical processes.

 

Characteristics of Manufacturing Industries:

  1. Reliance on imported skilled labor.
  2. Dependence on foreign countries for raw materials.
  3. Concentration in urban centers.
  4. Predominance of light industries.
  5. Labor-intensive processes.
  6. Local market consumption.
  7. Small-scale operations.

 

Classification of Manufacturing Industries:

  1. Light Industries: Produce lightweight goods like matches, television sets, and books.
  2. Consumer Goods Industries: Turn raw materials into consumable goods, usually located in cities.
  3. Heavy Industries: Produce heavy or bulky goods, such as metallurgical and petroleum industries.

 

Classification Based on Functions:

  1. Primary Industries: Extract raw materials from nature (extractive industries).
  2. Secondary Industries: Transform raw materials into finished goods.
  3. Tertiary Industries: Provide services, either direct (trading, banking) or indirect (police, customs).

 

Factors Affecting Industrial Location:

  1. Proximity to raw materials.
  2. Nearness to the market.
  3. Access to power sources.
  4. Availability of labor.
  5. Access to capital.
  6. Adequate transport network.
  7. Government policies.
  8. Political stability.

 

Reasons for Siting Industries in Urban Areas:

  1. Large market.
  2. Availability of labor.
  3. Good transport network.
  4. Proximity to seaports and airports.
  5. Availability of finance.
  6. Presence of infrastructure facilities.

 

Localization of Industries:

– Concentration of industries in a particular area.

 

Advantages of Concentration of Industries:

  1. Interdependence of industries.
  2. Employment opportunities.
  3. Mobility of labor.
  4. Provision of social amenities.
  5. Healthy competition.
  6. Development of organized markets.
  7. Attraction of subsidiary industries.
  8. Promotion of inventions and innovations.

 

Disadvantages of Concentration of Industries:

  1. Traffic, housing, and industrial congestion.
  2. Shortage of amenities.
  3. Increased crime rates.
  4. Environmental pollution.
  5. Target during wartime.
  6. Encourages rural-urban migration.

 

Contributions of Industrial Sector to Economic Development:

  1. Employment provision.
  2. Increase in Gross National Product (GNP).
  3. Infrastructural development.
  4. Manpower development.
  5. Funding of education and research.
  6. Improvement of trade balance.
  7. Stimulation of other sectors.

 

Problems of Manufacturing Industries:

  1. Shortage of raw materials.
  2. Insufficient capital.
  3. High foreign dependence.
  4. Poor quality of industrial labor.
  5. Political instability.
  6. Poor management.
  7. Inadequate power supply.

 

Solutions to Industrial Problems:

  1. Skill acquisition.
  2. Good government policies.
  3. Active government participation.
  4. Incentives to local industries.
  5. Provision of transport facilities.
  6. Creation of industrial zones.
  7. Stable government.

 

Local Craft (Cottage) Industries in Nigeria:

Industries dependent on locally obtained raw materials, using simple tools and producing high-quality, artistic work.

 

Examples of Local Craft Industries:

  1. Leather works (Kano, Bida, Sokoto).
  2. Wood carving (Ikot Ekpene, Uyo, Oyo, Benin City).
  3. Pottery and glass making (Ikot Ekpene, Bida, Ilorin, Calabar).
  4. Ropes and mat making (Ikot Ekpene, Warri, Kano).
  5. Brass and silver works (Bida, Benin, Kano).
  6. Textile/cloth weaving (Akwette, Okene, Kano, Iseyin).

 

Modern Manufacturing Industries in Nigeria:

  1. The Western Industrial Zone: Lagos, Ibadan, Sango Ota, Abeokuta, Epe, Apapa, Ewekoro, Oshogbo.
  2. The South-East Industrial Zone: Nkalagu, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Enugu, Aba, Owerri, Calabar.
  3. The North-Central Industrial Zone: Kano, Kaduna, Jos, Zaria.
  4. The Mid-Western Industrial Zone: Warri, Benin, Sapele, Ughelli.

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