The Role of Government And Non-Governmental Organization In Agricultural Development

Roles of Government in Agricultural Development: The government plays a crucial role in shaping and guiding agricultural activities through its agriculture ministries. Responsibilities include formulating policies and programs, establishing regulations, providing financial support through loans and subsidies, funding research, creating farm settlements, and supplying essential services such as vaccines and quarantine measures.   Establishment of […]

Roles of Government in Agricultural Development:

The government plays a crucial role in shaping and guiding agricultural activities through its agriculture ministries. Responsibilities include formulating policies and programs, establishing regulations, providing financial support through loans and subsidies, funding research, creating farm settlements, and supplying essential services such as vaccines and quarantine measures.

 

Establishment of Agricultural Policies:

Each country has its unique agricultural policies aimed at increasing food crop production, catering to evolving population needs, enhancing the quality and efficiency of major export crops, generating employment through large farms, supplying raw materials for local industries, and boosting livestock production for animal protein in diets.

 

Establishment of Agricultural Programs and Planning:

Once policies are in place, the government devises programs for their implementation. Programs encompass a forward-looking projection of actions, while plans involve organizing goals and the means to achieve them. In Nigeria, government programs for agricultural development include Extension Services, Farm Settlement Schemes, Agricultural Loan Schemes, Credit Facilities, River Basins Development Authorities, National Agricultural Insurance Scheme, subsidies, Agricultural education and research, quarantine and vaccines, Operation Feed the Nation, Green Revolution, Agricultural Development Project, DFRRI, and National Agricultural Land Development Agency.

 

  1. Provision of Farm Inputs:

Government provides or subsidizes farm inputs to enable peasant farmers to purchase and use them on their farms.

 

  1. Provision of Basic Amenities:

To discourage migration from rural to urban areas, the government aims to provide basic amenities in rural areas, allowing individuals to stay and engage in farming.

 

  1. Provision of Storage and Processing Facilities:

To prevent food wastage and address scarcity, the government establishes storage and processing facilities nationwide.

 

  1. Provision of Extension Services:

Qualified extension officers are employed by the government to bring new ideas and innovations to rural farmers.

 

  1. Provision of Agricultural Education:

In light of illiteracy among some Nigerian farmers, the government offers adult education to enable them to read and write, facilitating the acceptance of new agricultural techniques and innovations.

 

  1. Provision of Quarantine Services:

Government enforces plant quarantine regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of foreign plant diseases and pests.

 

  1. Provision of Research Work:

Research institutes, such as the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, National Horticultural Research Institutes, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, and Leather Research Institute of Nigeria, are set up by the government to enhance local crop varieties and animal breeds, solving agricultural challenges and improving production.

 

Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Agricultural Development:

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), established and owned by individuals or groups, focus on addressing humanity’s problems. Relevant NGOs in agriculture include the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, West African Rice Development Agency, Food and Agricultural Organization, Hunger Project (Ghana), and Catholic Relief Service (Gambia).

 

Areas of Relevance:

  1. Research: NGOs conduct research to find solutions to agricultural challenges, developing new crop varieties and animal breeds.
  2. Finance: NGOs provide funding for numerous agricultural projects.
  3. Provision of Inputs: NGOs supply fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and other inputs to rural farmers.
  4. Extension Services: NGOs create awareness to improve farmers’ agricultural knowledge and offer extension services.
  5. Rural Development: NGOs contribute to rural development by providing basic amenities like roads and water supply for rural farmers.
  6. Irrigation and Drainage: NGOs facilitate year-round agricultural production by providing irrigation and drainage facilities.

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