The Environment

The environment is the complete surroundings or medium of any organism in a given area, encompassing physical surroundings, climatic factors, and other living organisms.   The Earth is Categorized into four spheres: Lithosphere: The solid portion containing rocks, sand, soil, minerals, etc. Hydrosphere: The liquid portion, including rivers, lakes, and oceans. Atmosphere: The gaseous portion […]

The environment is the complete surroundings or medium of any organism in a given area, encompassing physical surroundings, climatic factors, and other living organisms.

 

The Earth is Categorized into four spheres:

  1. Lithosphere: The solid portion containing rocks, sand, soil, minerals, etc.
  2. Hydrosphere: The liquid portion, including rivers, lakes, and oceans.
  3. Atmosphere: The gaseous portion with gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and ozone.
  4. Biosphere: The area where plants and animals are found.

These spheres are interconnected and rely on each other.

 

Ecosystem:

An ecosystem is the community of plants and animals coexisting harmoniously and interacting with their physical surroundings. In simpler terms, it is the relationship between living things and their non-living environment.

 

Components of Ecosystem:

The ecosystem comprises two main components:

(a) Abiotic (non-living) component: Elements like soil, water, gases, sunlight, etc.

(b) Biotic component: The living aspect, including plants and animals, grouped into autotrophs (producers), heterotrophs (consumers), and decomposers.

  1. Autotrophs: Green plants producing their own food through photosynthesis.
  2. Heterotrophs: Primary and secondary consumers relying on plants for food.
  3. Decomposers: Micro-organisms breaking down dead organic matter to release nutrients.

 

Interdependence within the Ecosystem:

Interdependence describes the relationship among ecosystem components, as they rely on each other and cannot exist in isolation. This interdependence manifests in three ways:

  1. Interdependence within abiotic components (e.g., weathering of rocks forming soil).
  2. Interdependence within biotic components (e.g., animals depending on plants for food).
  3. Interdependence between biotic and abiotic components (e.g., plants relying on soil for support and nutrients).

 

Environmental Balance:

Environmental balance involves recycling matter and the flow of energy within an ecosystem to ensure a continuous supply. This balance is maintained through processes like the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, mineral or nutrient cycle, and food chain and food web.

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