Soil Formation

Factors Of Soil Formation Soil Formation Factors Soil formation is influenced by various factors, namely climate, parent materials, topography, biotic factors (living organisms), and the element of time.   Climate Climate denotes the long-term average weather conditions in a specific location, encompassing factors such as sunlight, temperature, wind, relative humidity, rainfall, and pressure.   Rainfall: […]

Factors Of Soil Formation

Soil Formation Factors

Soil formation is influenced by various factors, namely climate, parent materials, topography, biotic factors (living organisms), and the element of time.

 

Climate

Climate denotes the long-term average weather conditions in a specific location, encompassing factors such as sunlight, temperature, wind, relative humidity, rainfall, and pressure.

 

Rainfall:

Erosion resulting from rainfall creates running water that gradually wears away rocks, contributing to soil formation. Raindrops’ impact can also break rocks, leading to soil formation.

 

Temperature:

The cyclical heating and cooling of rocks cause continuous expansion and contraction, resulting in cracks that, over time, lead to soil development.

 

Wind:

Particularly in desert regions, high wind velocity transports tiny rocks that collide, causing the breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces, ultimately forming soil.

 

Pressure:

Elevated pressure on a suspended rock may cause it to fall and break into minute pieces, contributing to soil formation.

 

Parent Material

The physical and chemical characteristics of parent materials determine the type of soil produced. Soils predominantly derived from quartz minerals yield sandy soil, while those from micas and feldspars result in clayey soil.

 

Topography

Soil erosion is more prominent in sloped areas compared to flat land. Wind or water easily erodes soil and rock surfaces on slopes. As rock particles wash down, they break into smaller pieces due to the combined effects of various weathering processes.

 

Biotic Factors [Living Organisms]

Microorganisms, plants, and animals actively contribute to rock formation.

  1. Termites and earthworms mix minerals and organic matter, leading to soil formation.
  2. Burrowing activities of earthworms and crickets facilitate air and water movement in the soil, promoting rock breakdown.
  3. Human tillage operations break rocks into tiny pieces, aiding in soil formation.
  4. Plant root penetration contributes to rock weathering.
  5. The decay of fallen tree leaves, assisted by bacteria, results in the formation of humus rich in plant nutrients.

 

Time

The element of time is a crucial factor in soil formation. The process takes an extended period for mature soil to develop. The disintegration of small rock fragments into soil grains and the decay of plants to become part of the soil are gradual processes that require considerable time.

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