Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), also known as venereal diseases, are contracted through sexual intercourse. Examples include syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, thrush, AIDS, etc. The following information outlines various STIs, their causative organisms, symptoms, and prevention/control measures.   Gonorrhea Causative Organism: Bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhea) Symptoms: Burning sensation during urination in males Thick yellowish discharge in males Pain […]

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), also known as venereal diseases, are contracted through sexual intercourse. Examples include syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, thrush, AIDS, etc. The following information outlines various STIs, their causative organisms, symptoms, and prevention/control measures.

 

Gonorrhea

Causative Organism: Bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhea)

Symptoms:

  1. Burning sensation during urination in males
  2. Thick yellowish discharge in males
  3. Pain on passing urine in females
  4. Vaginal discharge and swelling of the vulva
  5. Redness around the urinary openings
  6. Sterility at an advanced stage

Prevention/Control:

  1. Discourage commercialized prostitution
  2. Avoid multiple sexual partners
  3. Seek medical attention and cease sexual intercourse with previous partner(s)

 

Syphilis

  1. Causative Organism: Bacterium (Treponemapallidium)
  2. Symptoms:
  3. Small painless sore on the penis or vulva in the initial stage
  4. Fever, skin rashes, mouth ulcer, aching pains at the lymph node regions in the secondary stage
  5. Nervous disorder, insanity, repeated abortion, etc.
  6. Prevention/Control: Similar measures as in gonorrhea

 

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Causative Organism: Human immune-deficiency virus (HIV)

Symptoms:

  1. Fever, chronic diarrhea
  2. Excessive weight loss
  3. General skin irritation
  4. Swelling of the glands
  5. Persistent cough
  6. Persistent severe fatigue

Prevention/Control:

  1. Maintain one faithful partner
  2. Avoid sharing sharp objects
  3. Screen blood before transfusion
  4. Avoid oral, anal sex, and kissing
  5. National mass campaigns to educate people on the danger of HIV

 

Genital Warts

  1. Causative Organism: Human papilloma virus (HPV)

Symptoms:

  1. Painless, flesh-colored bumps/warts on the penis, around the vagina, and anus
  2. May reappear at different times
  3. Cervical cancer

Prevention/Control:

  1. Vaccine available for women aged 9-26
  2. Avoid sharing personal items

 

HIV And AIDS

HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus) causes AIDS, a sexually transmitted disease that breaks down the immune system. HIV belongs to a group of RNA viruses called retroviruses, capable of converting RNA to DNA. They attack and destroy helper T cells or CD4 (lymphocytes).

 

Mode Of Transmission

Apart from sexual intercourse, HIV can be transmitted through:

  1. Receiving blood transfusion from an infected person
  2. Infection through pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding
  3. Using unsterilized infected needles and syringes
  4. Practicing oral and anal sex
  5. Open-mouth kiss with an infected person

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