Respiratory System | Meaning, Organs, Breathing, Importance

Meaning of Respiratory System The respiratory system encompasses all the organs and tissues involved in the exchange of gases between the animal and its environment, facilitating the release of energy. Respiration aims to provide oxygen to cells, enabling the breakdown of food for energy.   Respiratory Organs Respiratory organs include structures like lungs in land […]

Meaning of Respiratory System

The respiratory system encompasses all the organs and tissues involved in the exchange of gases between the animal and its environment, facilitating the release of energy. Respiration aims to provide oxygen to cells, enabling the breakdown of food for energy.

 

Respiratory Organs

Respiratory organs include structures like lungs in land animals and gills in aquatic animals. Land animals utilize lungs for respiration, accompanied by nostrils, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. The trachea connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, branching into bronchi, which lead air into the lungs. The bronchioles carry air to the alveoli, tiny sacs facilitating the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

 

Process Of Breathing

Breathing involves the conscious or unconscious movement of air in and out of the lungs. Inhalation is the inward movement of air, while exhalation is the outward movement. Aquatic animals employ gills, located on the sides of the head, for respiration. Gill filaments in the gill chamber facilitate gaseous exchange, aided by gill rakers and gill arch. The operculum seals the gill chamber externally.

 

Importance Of The Respiratory System

The respiratory system:

  1. Supplies oxygen to body cells
  2. Reduces heat load in the body, especially in poultry
  3. Removes carbon dioxide from the body
  4. Facilitates gaseous exchange

 

Nervous System

The nervous system comprises organs and tissues enabling farm animals to respond to environmental changes. Stimuli trigger responses, and the nervous system consists of two parts:

Central Nervous System (C.N.S.): Includes the brain and spinal cord, responsible for correlating impulses from sense organs and storing information.

Peripheral Nervous System (P.N.S.): Comprises cranial and spinal nerves, mediating interactions between animals and their external environment.

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