Representation of Relief Landforms

Conventional Symbols Symbols on a map, known as conventional signs, serve as representations for both natural and human features within a depicted area. These symbols form the language of the map, enabling map readers to comprehend information. Typically located at the bottom of topographical maps, these signs include representations such as:   +    Signifying a […]

Conventional Symbols

Symbols on a map, known as conventional signs, serve as representations for both natural and human features within a depicted area. These symbols form the language of the map, enabling map readers to comprehend information. Typically located at the bottom of topographical maps, these signs include representations such as:

 

+    Signifying a hospital or dispensary.

+++++++++ Representing a railway line.

========== Indicating a main road.

 

Methods of Representing Relief

Relief in a geographical context refers to the elevation and characteristics of highlands and lowlands in a given area. Various methods are employed to depict relief on maps:

  1. Spot Height: Precisely measured points indicating elevation.
  2. Hill Shading: Utilizing varying shades to represent hill steepness.
  3. Trigonometrical Stations: Points denoted by triangles marking triangulation angles.
  4. Form Lines: Approximate relief lines drawn with broken patterns.
  5. Contours: Lines connecting points of equal height above sea level.
  6. Hatchures: Lines descending slopes, emphasizing gradient steepness.
  7. Contour Layering: Color distinctions between contours for visual clarity.
  8. Bench Mark: Permanent marks on structures denoting actual height.

 

Drawing of Relief Profile And Determining Intervisibility

Relief Profile

Relief profiles, or cross-sections, illustrate the actual appearance of relief represented by contour lines on a map. The steps for drawing a cross-section are as follows:

  1. Connect two points with a straight line.
  2. Place a paper strip along the line, marking where contours intersect.
  3. Number and indicate the rise/fall of marked contours.
  4. Transfer strip to a height scale, drawing vertical lines at corresponding heights.
  5. Join points with a smooth line.

 

Determining Intervisibility

Intervisibility assesses whether one map point can be seen from another. Points at the peak of a conical hill are visible from the base. Concave slopes allow intervisibility, while convex slopes do not. Two points on the same contour line are intervisible if all intermediate contour lines are at the same or lower elevation.

 

Interpretation of Topographical Maps

Topographical maps depict relief and essential features. Interpretation involves understanding relief, drainage, settlement, communication, and land use.

 

Interpretation of Relief:

  1. Utilize contour lines, spot heights, and trigonometrical stations to identify high and low points.
  2. Note proportions of highlands and lowlands.
  3. Identify specific landforms.
  4. Observe the direction and location of relief features.

 

Interpretation of Drainage:

  1. Identify rivers, their flow direction, and drainage patterns.
  2. Recognize watersheds.
  3. Note marshy areas and water bodies.

 

Interpretation of Settlement:

  1. Classify settlements (rural or urban).
  2. Determine settlement patterns and their relation to relief and drainage.
  3. Relate settlement to communication and identify uninhabited areas.

 

Interpretation of Communication:

  1. Identify communication means (roads, railways, etc.).
  2. Relate communication to relief, settlement, and features encountered during travel.

 

Land Use:

  1. Understand land use through conventional symbols.
  2. Associate features with specific uses or functions.

 

Examples of Features and Corresponding Land Uses:

  1. Banks & markets: Commercial
  2. Mineral resources: Mining
  3. Rivers: Fishing and canoe building
  4. Hotels and stadium: Social function
  5. Schools: Educational function
  6. Marshy areas: Swamp rice cultivation
  7. Industries: Industrial functions
  8. Forest: Farming and lumbering
  9. Grasses: Livestock
  10. Prison, court, police station: Administration
  11. Buildings: Residential
  12. Hospital, dispensary: Health function

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