Population

Population Characteristics Population characteristics encompass various factors such as population size, density, frequency, percentage cover, and distribution. Population size: The count of organisms of the same species coexisting in a specified area at a given time. Population density: The number of individuals of a particular species per unit area or volume of the habitat. It […]

Population Characteristics

Population characteristics encompass various factors such as population size, density, frequency, percentage cover, and distribution.

  1. Population size: The count of organisms of the same species coexisting in a specified area at a given time.
  2. Population density: The number of individuals of a particular species per unit area or volume of the habitat. It is calculated as population size divided by the area of the habitat.
  3. Population frequency: The occurrence frequency of an organism within a specific area or habitat.
  4. Percentage cover: The extent to which an organism occupies space or area in its habitat.
  5. Population growth rate: The net outcome of natality (birth rate) and mortality (death rate) in a given habitat.
  6. Population distribution: The arrangement of individuals of the same species in a habitat, categorized as random, even, or clumped.

 

Population Studies

  1. Choose the habitat.
  2. Select the sampling method.
  3. Collect, count, and record organisms using techniques like quadrant sampling or transects.
  4. Identify the dominant species, exerting greater influence on the community.
  5. Repeat studies at intervals.
  6. Determine population characteristics.

 

Factors Affecting Population

  1. Natality: The reproductive capacity of organisms influencing population increase.
  2. Mortality: The death rate affecting population size.
  3. Immigration: Organisms moving from different habitats, increasing the population of the new area.
  4. Emigration: Organisms leaving a habitat due to unfavorable conditions, reducing the population.
  5. Availability of food: Migration to areas with abundant food increases the local population.
  6. Seasonal climatic changes: Influence the stay or migration of organisms.
  7. Breeding season: Some organisms may move out during breeding seasons, causing population fluctuations.
  8. Natural disasters: Events like fire, drought, floods, earthquakes decrease population through organism death.

 

Measurement Of Ecological Factors

These ecological factors can be quantified using various instruments:

  1. Photometer: Measures light intensity.
  2. Hydrometer: Measures light intensity in water.
  3. Wind vane: Indicates wind direction.
  4. Anemometer: Measures wind speed.
  5. Rain Guage: Quantifies rainfall.
  6. Hygrometer: Measures relative humidity.
  7. Barometer: Measures atmospheric pressure.
  8. Glass thermometer: Measures temperature.
  9. Colorimeter or pH scale: Determines acidity/alkalinity.
  10. Secchi disc: Measures water turbidity.
  11. Sweep insect net: Captures insects.

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