Pest And Diseases of Crops And Livestock

A pest is an organism that hosts disease organisms or causes damage to other organisms. There are crop pests, such as insects like grasshoppers, mealy bugs, myriads, beetles, birds, and mammals (such as rodents), and livestock pests, including ectoparasites like ticks and mites, and endoparasites like liver flukes, roundworms, and tapeworms. Additionally, there are plant […]

A pest is an organism that hosts disease organisms or causes damage to other organisms. There are crop pests, such as insects like grasshoppers, mealy bugs, myriads, beetles, birds, and mammals (such as rodents), and livestock pests, including ectoparasites like ticks and mites, and endoparasites like liver flukes, roundworms, and tapeworms. Additionally, there are plant pests known as weeds or animal pests like insects, birds, rodents, monkeys, humans, or nematodes.

 

Types of Pest

Insect pests are arthropods that carry diseases or cause damage to plants and animals, such as ticks, lice, grasshoppers, and cotton stainers. Non-insect pests are vertebrates and mollusks that commonly cause disease to plants and animals or destroy crops, such as rodents, worms, nematodes, and monkeys.

 

Groups of Insect Crop Pests

  1. Stem Borers: Larvae of certain moths, laying eggs at the junctions of leaf sheaths and stems, weakening maize plants.
  2. Fruit and Seed Feeders: Include fruit-piercing moths, fruit flies, cotton strainers, and certain beetles, affecting crops like tomato, millet, maize, and okra.
  3. Root Feeders: Insect larvae or adults, such as the yam beetle, burrowing into the soil and feeding on yam tubers.
  4. Leaf Feeders: Snails, leaf-feeding beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and locusts eat crops’ leaves.
  5. Young Shoot Feeders: Insects like aphids and mealy bugs pierce and suck juices from young shoots, transmitting diseases.

 

Life Cycle of Some Selected Pests:

  1. Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates): Mating, egg-laying, nymph stage, migration to cassava farms, and feeding on cassava leaves.
  2. Cassava Mealy Bug (Phenacoccus manihoti): Parthenogenesis, larvae hiding in cassava stem cuttings, three molting stages, and impairing photosynthesis.
  3. Bean Weevil: Mating, egg-laying in ripening pods, larvae entering bean seeds, pupae in storage, and reducing bean quality.
  4. Cocoa Myriads (Capsid): Piercing and sucking insects causing die-back disease in cocoa plants, reducing growth and fruit yield.
  5. Yam Beetle (Heteroligus meles): Mating, egg-laying, larvae feeding on organic substances, pupae development, adults flying to yam areas, and feeding on yam tubers.

 

Examples of Pests of Crops, their Effects, and Control (Summary):

  1. Grasshopper: Nymphs and adults feed on leaves and shoots, reducing yield. Control: Spray with gammalin 20.
  2. Yam Beetle: Adults feed on yam tubers, rendering them valueless or causing poor yield. Control: Dust yam or yam sets with Aldrin before planting.
  3. Cocoa Myriads (Capsids): Attack young shoots of cocoa, introducing toxic saliva and viral diseases, reducing growth and fruit yield. Control: Spray cocoa farm with kokotine or gammalin 20.
  4. Mealy Bug: Sucks sap of cassava, causing bunchy tops, dropping leaves, and low root tubers. Control: Dig cassava cuttings in 0.1% rogor before planting.
  5. Beans Weevils: Larvae feed on bean seeds, reducing quantity and quality. Control: Fumigate the store with insecticides and early harvesting.
  6. Cotton Strainers: Feed on cotton seeds and stain lint. Control: Spray suitable insecticides.
  7. Mammals (Monkeys, Grass Cutter, Squirrel): Destroy tubers, fruits, and shoots. Control: Trapping, shooting, and clearing hideouts by proper weeding.
  8. Birds: Feed on grains, plantains, and other crops. Control: Chasing away.

 

Pests and Parasites of Livestock and their Effects:

A parasite is an organism that lives in or on another organism, known as a host, and has harmful effects on the host due to the association. There are endoparasites, such as tapeworms, roundworms, and liver flukes, that live inside the host, and ectoparasites, such as ticks, lice, and mites, that live on or outside the host.

Examples of Animal Pests, their Effects, and Control:

Ticks:

    1. Host: Cattle, goats, sheep
    2. Effects: Suck blood, leading to anaemia, restlessness, skin sores, and weight loss. Transmit viruses and protozoa causing diseases.
    3. Control: Spray animal houses with insecticides, remove ticks from the animals’ bodies.

 

Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica):

  1. Host: (Not specified)
  2. Effects: Cysts picked up when animals drink water and feed on grasses. Develops into a young fluke, affecting digestion, causing liver rot, drowsiness, and death.
  3. Control: Destroy water snails (intermediate hosts), treat pools with copper sulphate.

 

Roundworm (Ascarissuum):

  1. Host: Cattle, pigs
  2. Effects: Feeds on digested food, resulting in slow growth, indigestion, constipation, loss of appetite, weakness, and death.
  3. Control: Deworm animals regularly, implement good sanitary measures.

 

Lice:

  1. Host: Birds
  2. Effects: Suck blood, causing irritation, restlessness, weight loss, and low productivity. Transmit disease pathogens.
  3. Control: Prevent overcrowding, practice good sanitary measures, and use insecticides (DDT).

 

Tse-tse fly:

  1. Host: Cattle
  2. Effects: Suck blood, transmit trypanosomes (protozoan parasites) causing sleeping sickness, anaemia, and weight loss.
  3. Control: Clear bushes around farmland, use insecticides.

 

Economic Importance of Pests:

Pests can lead to a reduction in crop and plant yield, a decrease in the quality of farm produce, an increase in production control costs, a reduction in farmers’ income, unattractive and unmarketable farm produce, malformation in plants and animals, and the death of plants and animals.

 

Diseases:

A disease is a deviation from the normal state of health in plants or animals, presenting visible symptoms. Disease pathogens include bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, and protozoa.

 

Diseases of Crops, Effects, and Control:

Maize rust:

  1. Causative Organism: Fungus
  2. Symptoms: Cob and grains covered with black spores, premature death.
  3. Control: Apply fungicides before planting.

 

Groundnut rosette:

  1. Causative Organism: Virus
  2. Symptoms: Leaves curl and turn yellow, mottling, and wrinkles, leading to death.
  3. Control: Uproot and burn infected plants, plant resistant varieties.

 

Rice blasts:

  1. Causative Organism: Fungus
  2. Symptoms: Brown spots on leaves, leaves dry up.
  3. Control: Use resistant varieties, apply fungicide.

 

Cassava mosaic:

  1. Causative Organism: Virus
  2. Symptoms: Distorted leaves, yellow patches, stunted growth.
  3. Control: Plant resistant varieties.

 

Cocoa black pod:

  1. Causative Organism: Fungus (Phytophthora palmivora)
  2. Symptoms: Brown spots on pods, pods turn black and dry up.
  3. Control: Apply fungicides, remove and burn all infected pods.

 

Cassava wilt:

  1. Causative Organism: Bacterium
  2. Symptoms: Leaves wilt and fall off.
  3. Control: Early planting, crop rotation.

 

Cocoa swollen shoot:

  1. Causative Organism: Virus
  2. Symptoms: Stems and roots become swollen, leaves chlorolysis.
  3. Control: Burn infected plants, use resistant varieties.

 

Livestock Diseases, Effects, and Control:

Newcastle Disease (Poultry)

  1. Causative Organism: Virus
  2. Symptoms: Neck twisting, paralysis of legs, respiratory and nervous disorder, low productivity, and death
  3. Control: Sanitation, vaccination

 

Rinderpest (Cattle)

  1. Causative Organism: Virus
  2. Symptoms: High fever and diarrhea
  3. Control: Isolation of infected animals, vaccination

 

Anthrax (Cattle, Goat, Sheep)

  1. Causative Organism: Bacteria
  2. Symptoms: Swellings in the neck and lower abdomen, fever, blood-stained discharge from the nostrils
  3. Control: Immunization, sanitation

 

Coccidiosis (Poultry)

  1. Causative Organism: Protozoan
  2. Symptoms: Blood in stool, affects intestines
  3. Control: Sanitation

 

Trypanosomiasis (Cattle)

  1. Causative Organism: Protozoan (trypanosome)
  2. Symptoms: Intermittent fever, general body weakness
  3. Control: Spray tsetse flies with insecticide, rear resistant breeds

 

General Effects of Pests & Diseases:

  1. Reduction in yield and productivity of crops and plants.
  2. Reduction in the quality of farm produce.
  3. Increase in the cost of production in the course of controlling them.
  4. Reduction in the income of farmers.
  5. Rendering farm produce unattractive and unmarketable.
  6. Causing malformation in plants and animals.
  7. Causing the death of plants and animals.

 

General Control of Pests & Diseases:

  1. Cultural control: Use of farm practices to prevent or control pests and diseases (e.g., crop rotation, regular weeding, early harvesting, and use of resistant varieties).
  2. Biological control: Introduction of natural enemies of pests to control them.
  3. Physical control: Physical removal of pests by hand (picking, setting traps, shooting, or fencing a farm with wire nets).
  4. Chemical control: Use of chemicals (pesticides) to control pests.

Related Posts:

Importance Of Biology To Agriculture

Better Health

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

Micro Organisms

Micro-Organisms

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top