Part Of Speech

An adjective is a word that qualifies or modifies nouns and pronouns, typically providing additional information about attributes such as quality, colour, or quantity. These words are positioned close to the nouns they modify compared to other modifying elements. There are two primary uses for adjectives: attributive use and predicative use. Attributive Use: When an […]

An adjective is a word that qualifies or modifies nouns and pronouns, typically providing additional information about attributes such as quality, colour, or quantity. These words are positioned close to the nouns they modify compared to other modifying elements.

There are two primary uses for adjectives: attributive use and predicative use.

  1. Attributive Use: When an adjective is used with a noun, it is known as attributive use. Examples include “beautiful girl,” “cleaner student,” and “tall tree.”
  2. Predicative Use: When an adjective is used with a verb, it is termed predicative use. Examples include “she is afraid,” “he is alive,” and “they are dead.”

 

Adjectives can be categorized into ten types:

  1. Adjective of quality
  2. Adjective of quantity
  3. Adjective of number
  4. Demonstrative adjective
  5. Distributive adjective
  6. Interrogative adjective
  7. Possessive adjective
  8. Emphasizing adjective
  9. Exclamation adjective
  10. Proper adjective

Adjective of Quality: Describes the quality of a person or thing, such as wealthy, regional, industrial, fundamental, elementary, or primary.

Example: The Yoruba is a regional language, and he is a wealthy person.

Adjective of Quantity: Describes the quantity of things, including words like little, much, enough, no, any, whole, some, all, great, half, and sufficient.

Example: There is a little milk in the jug, and my father earned enough money.

Adjective of Number: Describes the number of things or persons, including fine, few, no, many, all, some, most, several, first, any, and one.

Example: She wrote six papers for her B.A, and all students passed in the exam.

Demonstrative Adjective: Points out the person or thing being referred to, including this, that, these, and those.

Example: This book is very interesting, and those flowers are lovely.

Distributive Adjective: Refers to each and every person or thing separately, including each, every, either, neither, any, none, and both.

Example: Each boy was awarded a diploma, and neither party has a majority in the recent elections.

Interrogative Adjective: Used to question, including what, which, and whose.

Example: What advice shall I give you? Which place do you wish to visit?

Possessive Adjective: Describes ownership or possession, including my, your, our, his, her, its, and their.

Example: Your father is a doctor, and our country is Nigeria.

Moving on to adverbs:

An adverb modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or another adverb.

Examples include:

  1. She writes quickly.
  2. Bukola is very smart.
  3. He explained the poem fairly well.

Adverbs are categorized into eight types based on their use:

  1. Adverb of manner
  2. Adverb of place
  3. Adverb of time
  4. Adverb of frequency
  5. Adverb of certainty
  6. Adverb of degree
  7. Interrogative adverb
  8. Relative adverb

 

Adverb of Manner: Describes how an action is done, including quickly, bravely, happily, hard, and well.

Example: They lived happily, and Bukola walked gracefully.

Adverb of Place: Indicates where an action is done, including here, there, up, down, near, and everywhere.

Example: I went there, and she stood near the gate.

Adverb of Time: Specifies when an action is done, including now, then, today, tomorrow, and daily.

Example: My father is not at home now, and she will come here soon.

Adverb of Frequency: Describes how often an action is done, including once, twice, often, and never.

Example: They talked to each other again, and we visited Jos twice.

Adverb of Certainty: Shows the definiteness of an action, including surely, certainly, and obviously.

Example: Surely, she loves me, and Janet is obviously very clean.

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