Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Spelling

Review of Word Class – Parts of Speech Noun: A noun serves as a naming word, representing a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. It encompasses names of institutions, months, days, and abstract concepts. Examples of nouns include: Names of people: Uche, Peterson, Adebisi, Falase Names of places: Beijing, Meiran, Atan Ota, London, Sweden, Canada […]

Review of Word Class – Parts of Speech

Noun:

A noun serves as a naming word, representing a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. It encompasses names of institutions, months, days, and abstract concepts. Examples of nouns include:

  1. Names of people: Uche, Peterson, Adebisi, Falase
  2. Names of places: Beijing, Meiran, Atan Ota, London, Sweden, Canada
  3. Names of things: table, chair, house, laptop, radio, etc.
  4. Names of institutions: family, tribe, Christianity, Islam, university, etc.
  5. Names of months and days: January, February, December, Sunday, Thursday, and Friday.
  6. Names of abstract ideas: beauty, knowledge, emotion, hope, courage, wisdom, empathy, etc.

 

Features of Nouns:

  1. Most nouns form plurals with the ending “-s” or “-es” (e.g., girl – girls, box – boxes, church – churches).
  2. Nouns are commonly used with articles, demonstratives, and adjectives (e.g., a cup, an hour, a church, that house, black girl, some people).
  3. Words ending with certain morphemes are often nouns, such as “-age” (e.g., damage, grainage), “-al” (e.g., arrival, dismissal), “-tion” (e.g., action, imagination), “-er” (e.g., adviser, worker), etc.

 

Types of Nouns:

  1. Proper Nouns: These name specific persons, places, or things, and the first letter is always capitalized (e.g., Atan-Ota, Monday, August).
  2. Common Noun: The opposite of a concrete noun, it refers to general kinds of things, persons, or places (e.g., boy, man, lady, church, mosque, boxes, table, knives).
  3. Concrete Noun: Tangible and visible nouns, opposite of abstract nouns (e.g., books, tables, bags).
  4. Abstract Nouns: Intangible and felt rather than seen or touched (e.g., hatred, hunger, pains, intelligence).
  5. Count Nouns: Can be counted and have singular and plural forms (e.g., one man – five men, one orange – several oranges, a book – five books).
  6. Non-count or Mass Nouns: Cannot be counted and have only a singular form (e.g., sand, soap, rice, homework, water), though they may be counted in units of measurement.
  7. Collective Nouns: Name groups of people or things (e.g., a troupe of dancers, a band of thieves).
  8. Possessive Noun/Genitive: Indicates possession (e.g., Dr. Oyeyemi’s car, Mrs. Alalade’s dress).

Number: English has two numbers – singular and plural. Singular refers to one, while plural refers to more than one. Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms, while uncountable nouns have only a singular form.

 

Regular Plurals – s and es

 

Singular: School, Mat, House, Box, Bonus

Plural:

  1. Schools
  2. Mats
  3. Houses
  4. Boxes
  5. Bonuses

 

Irregular Plurals

Singular: man, ox, goose, crisis, forum, formula, symposium, foot, parenthesis, medium, index, larva, louse, mouse, curriculum, axis, oasis

Plural:

  1. men
  2. oxen
  3. geese
  4. crises
  5. fora
  6. formulae
  7. symposia
  8. feet
  9. parentheses
  10. media
  11. indices/indexes
  12. larvae
  13. lice
  14. mice
  15. curricula
  16. axes
  17. oases

 

Plurals In Compound Nouns

Singular: Head of state, head of department, commander in chief, woman doctor, secretary general, woman occupant, passer-by, mother-in-law, grown-up, major general, church-goer, step-son

Plural:

  1. Heads of States
  2. Heads of departments
  3. Commanders in chief
  4. Women doctors
  5. Secretaries general
  6. Women occupants
  7. Passers-by
  8. Mothers-in-law
  9. Grown-ups
  10. Major generals
  11. Church-goers
  12. Step-sons

 

Zero Plurals

Singular: Gross, Deer, Sheep, Fish, Series, Trout, Salmon, Person

Plural:

  1. Gross
  2. Deer
  3. Sheep
  4. Fish or fishes
  5. Series
  6. Trout
  7. Salmon
  8. Persons or people

 

Others

  1. machinery
  2. information
  3. equipment
  4. advice
  5. jewelry
  6. stationery
  7. furniture
  8. baggage
  9. luggage

 

Note: These Are In Plural Forms

  1. aircraft(pl) – aircraft
  2. cattle(pl) – cattle

 

These Naturally ‘GO’ with ‘S’ or ‘ES’

  1. goods
  2. remains (a body of a dead person)
  3. ashes
  4. headquarters
  5. quarters
  6. congratulations
  7. manners
  8. surroundings
  9. wages
  10. arms
  11. works – (Public works such as road construction)

 

More On Review Of Parts Of Speech Pronouns And Adjectives

Pronouns: Pronouns are words used to replace nouns in a sentence to avoid unnecessary repetition. Nouns and pronouns are used interchangeably in a sentence, performing the same function. Examples include he, they, we, etc.

 

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns:

Examples include I, we, they, us, etc.

 

Possessive Pronouns:

Examples include yours, his, hers, theirs, its, yours, etc.

 

Demonstrative Pronouns:

Examples include this, that, these, those.

 

Interrogative Pronouns:

Examples include who, which, whom, whose, etc.

 

Reflexive Pronouns:

Examples include myself, themselves, yourselves/yourself, ourselves, oneself, etc.

 

Reciprocal Pronouns:

Examples include each other and one another.

 

Relative Pronoun:

Examples include which, whom, whose, who, that, etc.

 

Indefinite Pronouns:

Examples include someone, somebody, anything, anyone, everything, everyone, nobody, nothing, etc.

 

Adjectives

Adjectives are words that describe or qualify nouns. They perform attributive functions when placed before a noun, and predicative functions when placed after a linking verb.

 

Types of Adjectives:

  1. Adjectives of Colour: red, green, black – e.g., a red shirt, a green basket.
  2. Adjectives of Size: big, small, long.
  3. Adjectives of Age: old, young.
  4. Adjectives of Shape: rectangular, circular, round, spherical.
  5. Adjectives of Origin: Nigerian, Ghanaian, Canadian.
  6. Adjectives of Number: one, two, three, twenty.
  7. Demonstrative Adjectives: this, these, that, those.
  8. Possessive Adjectives: your, my, her, their.
  9. Distributive Adjectives: each, some, every, any.

 

Formation of Adjectives:

  1. -cal: grammatical, classical.
  2. -ic: authentic, historic, workaholic.
  3. -eous: advantageous.
  4. -ious: melodious, odious, copious, superstitious.
  5. -uous: promiscuous, continuous, conspicuous.
  6. -ive: meditative, sedative, curative.
  7. -able: edible, curable, sensible, marketable.
  8. -al: illegal, regal, digital, rural, brutal.
  9. -ial: social, crucial, essential, commercial.

 

Verb

A verb expresses action and a state of being.

Types of Verbs:

  1. Lexical Verb (Main Verb): Expresses action, stands on its own – e.g., speak, pray, write.
  2. Auxiliary Verbs: Primary (be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been) and Modal (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, ought to, dare, need).

 

Finite and Non-Finite Verbs:

  1. Finite Verb agrees with subject in person, tense, and number.
  2. Non-Finite Verbs do not agree with subject – includes infinitives (-to work) and verbs with -ing ending.

 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs:

  1. Transitive Verb receives an object – e.g., He killed a snake.
  2. Intransitive Verb does not require an object – e.g., She died, They cooked, We prayed.

 

C: Spelling: Doubling of Consonants

Rules of Spelling:

(a) Words of one syllable with one vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant before adding suffixes beginning with a vowel.

Examples: big – bigger, bat – batting, drop – dropped, drum – drummer.

 

(b) When the vowel is doubled (o, a), do not double the consonant.

Examples: boat – boating, boil – boiled, cheap – cheapest, sweet – sweeter (Exception: wool – woollen).

 

(c) Words of more than one syllable (ad/mit) –i-vowel, t-consonant, double the final consonant when the accent is on the last syllable.

Examples: admit – admittance, begin – beginning, forget – forgetting, occur – occurrence.

 

(d) Words of more than one syllable not accented on the last syllable: do not double the consonant if you add an ending that begins with a vowel.

Examples: enter – entering, happen – happened, inhabit – inhabitant, refer – reference.

 

(e) A final “p” is doubled.

Examples: Handicap – Handicapped, Kidnap – kidnapped, Worship – Worshipped (Exception: Develop – Developed).

 

(f) In words ending with “c,” add “k” before the suffix.

Examples: frolic – frolicked, mimic – mimicked, panic – panicky.

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