Nigeria Climate

Climate refers to the prolonged average atmospheric weather conditions, typically spanning 30-35 years. Various factors influence climate, including latitude, altitude, proximity to the sea, ocean currents, etc. Key elements of climate encompass temperature, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, pressure, cloud cover, and sunshine. Temperature, indicating the degree of hotness or coldness, exhibits regional disparities in Nigeria. […]

Climate refers to the prolonged average atmospheric weather conditions, typically spanning 30-35 years.

Various factors influence climate, including latitude, altitude, proximity to the sea, ocean currents, etc.

Key elements of climate encompass temperature, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, pressure, cloud cover, and sunshine.

Temperature, indicating the degree of hotness or coldness, exhibits regional disparities in Nigeria. The south experiences lower temperatures (around 24°C) due to the cooling effects of the Atlantic Ocean, while the north encounters higher temperatures, influenced by the Sahara Desert or distance from the sea. Altitude also contributes, with high-altitude areas like Jos plateau having lower temperatures (20°C), contrasting with the warmer lowlands.

 

Seasonal variations affect temperature, with the north experiencing higher temperatures during the rainy season and the south having lower temperatures in the dry season due to harmattan effects.

 

Wind, defined as air in motion, plays a significant role in Nigeria’s climate. Notable winds include the Tropical Maritime Airmass (south-west trade wind) bringing rain to the south, Tropical Continental Airmass (north-east trade wind) causing dryness in the north, Equatorial Easterlies around the equator, and local land and sea breezes along the coast.

 

Nigeria experiences two main seasons: wet and dry. The dry season is influenced by the tropical continental air mass and the southwesterly wind.

 

Rainfall distribution is uneven, increasing from the coast inland. The coast receives rain for 8 to 12 months, while the northwest and northeast receive less than four months of rain. Mean annual rainfall varies from 2000mm along the coast to less than 600mm in the north.

 

Insolation (incoming solar radiation) is generally high throughout Nigeria, with less in the south due to thicker cloud cover. The north receives the highest insolation, and sunshine hours are fewer in the rainy season.

Relative humidity decreases towards the north, with higher humidity in the south and during the rainy season.

Related Posts:

Relief & Drainage

Location, Position And Size Of Nigeria

Map Distances

Map ReadingComponents Of Geographic Information System (GIS)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top