Mountains

Mountains are elevated land surfaces formed by the intense action of internal forces, featuring steep slopes and distinct peaks. They are categorized into four major types based on their formation: Fold Mountains, Block Mountains, Volcanic Mountains, and Residual Mountains. (a) Fold Mountains: Characteristics: Comprising old hard rocks with steep sides, exhibiting a wrinkled or folded […]

Mountains are elevated land surfaces formed by the intense action of internal forces, featuring steep slopes and distinct peaks. They are categorized into four major types based on their formation: Fold Mountains, Block Mountains, Volcanic Mountains, and Residual Mountains.

(a) Fold Mountains:

  1. Characteristics: Comprising old hard rocks with steep sides, exhibiting a wrinkled or folded appearance with distinct peaks. They exist in layered form, containing anticlines and synclines.
  2. Mode of Formation: Formed by large-scale horizontal earth movements due to stress and compressional forces, resulting in the compression of rocks and the formation of anticlines and synclines.

 

(b) Block Mountains:

  1. Characteristics: Made up of old hard rocks with flat or slightly sloping surfaces, featuring steep sides and often associated with rift valleys.
  2. Mode of Formation: Formed through earth cracking due to faulting, which may result from tensional or compressional forces. Block Mountains arise when a block of rock between two normal faults rises or when the land on either side of the block subsides.

 

(c) Volcanic Mountains:

  1. Characteristics: Composed of lava, with irregular sides and a conical shape. Materials include ash, volcanic bombs, and cinders arranged in layers.
  2. Mode of Formation: Formed by volcanoes built from materials ejected through fissures or vents in the earth’s crust, including molten lava, volcanic bombs, cinders, ash, dust, and liquid mud.

 

(d) Residual Mountains:

  1. Characteristics: Formed from the remains of pre-existing mountains, exhibiting irregular surfaces with steep sides.
  2. Mode of Formation: Created by the lowering or reduction of existing mountains through agents of denudation such as running water, ice, and wind. Residual mountains represent the remaining hard and resistant parts of the original mountains.

 

Importance or Uses of Mountains:

  1. Sources of minerals.
  2. Formation of rainfall.
  3. Transhumance.
  4. Climatic barriers.
  5. Defense.
  6. Tourist centers.
  7. Construction of Hydro-Electric Power.
  8. Wind-breaks.

 

Disadvantages of Mountains:

  1. Barriers to communication.
  2. Prevention of human habitation.
  3. Promotion of soil erosion.
  4. Occupation of good land that could be used for other purposes.
  5. Poor nutrient content in mountain soil.

Related Posts:

Major Landforms Of The World

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Rocks Of The Earth

Internal Structure Of The Earth

Structure Of The Earth

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