Micro Organisms

Bacteria undergo reproduction through a process known as binary fission, where a single cell divides into two. This method is referred to as asexual reproduction. The time it takes for a cell to divide into two is termed the generation time, which varies among different organisms based on factors such as nutrient availability, temperature, gaseous […]

Bacteria undergo reproduction through a process known as binary fission, where a single cell divides into two. This method is referred to as asexual reproduction. The time it takes for a cell to divide into two is termed the generation time, which varies among different organisms based on factors such as nutrient availability, temperature, gaseous requirements, and pH. Bacterial growth consists of distinct phases, including the lag phase, logarithmic or exponential phase, stationary phase, and decline or death phase. Various methods, such as turbidity, serial dilution, and squared transparent paper or cellophane, can be employed to measure microbial growth.

 

Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Micro-organisms:

Beneficial Effects:

  1. Bacteria aid in digesting cellulose in herbivores.
  2. In humans, they synthesize vitamin K and B12.
  3. Bacteria and fungi are crucial in antibiotic synthesis.
  4. Used in the production of amino acids, vinegar, and processing milk into different flavors.
  5. Decompose sewage into harmless inorganic compounds.
  6. Microbial cultures are utilized for enzyme production.
  7. Yeast serves as a leavening agent in baking.
  8. Algae play a vital role in soil fertilization.
  9. Bacteria are used in the production of single-cell protein (SCP).

 

Harmful Effects:

  1. Bacteria contribute to the decay and spoilage of food.
  2. Microbes destroy materials like wood, paper, textiles, rubber, and metals.
  3. They cause various diseases.

 

Diseases Caused by Micro-organisms:

Chickenpox:

Chickenpox is caused by the Varicella Virus, and its symptoms include fever, tiredness, and an itchy rash. The transmission occurs through contact, and the control measures involve isolating the patient and administering appropriate drugs.

 

Cholera:

Cholera, induced by Vibrio Cholerae, manifests as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. Transmission occurs through flies, food, faeces, and carriers, emphasizing the importance of personal hygiene as a control measure.

 

Common Cold:

Rhino Virus is the culprit behind the common cold, leading to symptoms like cough, runny nose, and shivering. Its transmission is primarily through contact, and controlling it involves taking appropriate medications and avoiding contact.

 

Dengue:

Dengue, caused by the Dengue Virus, results in severe headache, eye pain, joint pain, and rash, among other symptoms. Aedes Mosquitoes transmit it, prompting control measures such as draining water and clearing bushes to reduce mosquito habitats.

 

Diarrhoea:

Giardia intestinalis causes diarrhea with symptoms like frequent passing of watery faeces, cramps, and nausea. The transmission is through contaminated stools, making personal hygiene crucial for control.

 

Diphtheria:

Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria, characterized by sore throat, difficulty breathing, and fever. It spreads through contact, and control involves using antibiotics and avoiding contacts.

 

Leprosy:

Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, results in disfiguring skin sores and muscle weakness. Long and close contact contribute to transmission, and control measures include antibiotics, avoiding contacts, and isolating patients.

 

Measles:

Measles, caused by the Measles virus, presents symptoms like high temperature, cough, and diarrhea. The transmission is through contact, and control measures include appropriate medication and avoiding contact.

 

Pneumonia:

Diplococcus pneumonia causes pneumonia with symptoms like high fever and difficulty breathing. Bacteria transmission through contact highlights the importance of using antibiotics and avoiding contact for control.

 

Poliomyelitis:

Poliomyelitis, caused by Polio Virus or Enterovirus, induces symptoms like fever and muscle weakness. Houseflies, food, and water contribute to transmission, and control involves good hygiene and appropriate medication.

 

Rabies:

Rabies, caused by the Rhabdovirus, results in fever, cough, and sore throat. Its transmission occurs through mad dog bites, and control measures include treating dogs and seeking urgent medical attention for bites.

 

Septic Sore Throat:

Streptococcus Bacteria cause septic sore throat, leading to fever and difficulty swallowing. Transmission is through contact, and control involves using antibiotics and avoiding contact.

 

Sleeping Sickness:

Tryponosoma Brucei causes sleeping sickness, featuring anxiety, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Transmission through fly bites underscores the need to clear vegetation, use insecticides, and administer medication.

 

Smallpox:

Smallpox, caused by the Variola Virus, exhibits symptoms like high fever and vomiting. The transmission occurs through contact, and control measures involve appropriate medication and avoiding contact.

 

Tuberculosis:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis, leading to symptoms like malaise and weight loss. Bacteria transmission through cough emphasizes the need to isolate patients and use appropriate antibiotics.

 

Tetanus:

Clostridium tetani causes tetanus, resulting in muscle spasms and breathing problems. Transmission through bacteria in soil highlights the urgency of treating wounds.

 

Typhoid:

Salmonella Typhi induces typhoid with symptoms like abdominal tenderness and confusion. Flies, food, and other means contribute to transmission, and control involves treating water, maintaining hygiene, and using antibiotics.

 

Whooping Cough:

Hameophilius Pertussis causes whooping cough, featuring coughing and breathing difficulties. Transmission occurs through coughing and sneezing, and control measures involve isolating patients and using appropriate antibiotics.

 

Influenza Flu:

Orthomixovirus causes influenza flu, presenting symptoms like fever and sore throat. Transmission is through contact, and control involves taking appropriate medication and avoiding contact.

 

Malaria:

Malaria, caused by Plasmodium and transmitted through female Anophelex mosquitoes, leads to symptoms like chills and muscle aches. Control measures include using drugs, insecticides, and other preventive measures.

Related Posts:

Micro-Organisms

Ecological Management | Symbiosis Or Mutualism, Protocooperation, Commensalism, Amensalism, Parasitism

Ecosystem | Feeding, Trophic Levels, Food Chain And Food Web

Population

Biomes | Mangrove Swamps, Tropical Rainforest, Savanna, World Biomes

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top