Major Landforms Of The World

Mountains Mountains are elevated land surfaces formed by intense internal forces, displaying steep slopes and distinct peaks. They are categorized into four main types: Fold Mountains, Block Mountains, Volcanic Mountains, and Residual Mountains.   (a) Fold Mountains Characteristics: These mountains consist of old hard rocks with steep sides, exhibiting a wrinkled or folded appearance and […]

Mountains

Mountains are elevated land surfaces formed by intense internal forces, displaying steep slopes and distinct peaks. They are categorized into four main types: Fold Mountains, Block Mountains, Volcanic Mountains, and Residual Mountains.

 

(a) Fold Mountains

Characteristics: These mountains consist of old hard rocks with steep sides, exhibiting a wrinkled or folded appearance and prominent peaks. They exist in layered form, with soft rocks displaying anticlines and synclines.

 

Mode of Formation: Formed by large-scale horizontal earth movement due to stress and compressional forces, resulting in the compression of the earth’s crust. The compressional forces produce wrinkling or folding, forming anticlines and synclines. Complex forces can lead to asymmetrical folding, overfolds, and recumbent folds, with extreme folding causing faults or cracks to form over thrust folds.

 

(b) Block Mountains

Characteristics: Composed of old hard rocks with flat or slightly sloping surfaces, featuring steep sides and associated with rift valleys. Examples include Hunsruck Mountain, Voges Mountain, and the Black Forest of the Rhine land.

 

Mode of Formation: Formed when the earth cracks due to faulting caused by tensional or compressional forces. Tensional forces create normal faults, while compressional forces lead to reverse or thrust faults. Block Mountains result from the rising of a block of rock between two normal faults or the subsiding of land on either side of the block, forming a block mountain or Horst. Occasionally, a block may subside, creating a rift valley or graben. Denudation agents modify the slopes and height of Block Mountains.

 

(c) Volcanic Mountains

Characteristics: Composed of lava, with irregular sides and a conical shape. Materials include ash, volcanic bombs, and cinders arranged in layers. Examples include Mt. Fuji (Japan), Mt. Mayon (Philippines), and various African mountains.

 

Mode of Formation: Formed from volcanoes built by materials ejected through fissures or vents in the earth’s crust, including molten magma, lava, volcanic bombs, cinders, ash, dust, and liquid mud. These materials accumulate around the vent, forming a volcanic cone. Volcanic Mountains are also referred to as Mountains of Accumulation.

 

(d) Residual Mountains

Characteristics: Formed from the remnants of existing mountains, displaying irregular surfaces with steep sides and occurring in varying heights and sizes. Examples include Mt. Manodnock (U.S.A), Highlands of Scotland, Highlands of Scandinavia, and the Decon Plateau.

 

Mode of Formation: Formed from existing mountains lowered or reduced by agents of denudation such as running water, ice, and wind. Residual Mountains are the remaining hard and resistant parts of existing mountains after the upper part has been lowered.

 

Importance or Uses of Mountains:

  1. Sources of Minerals
  2. Formation of Rainfall
  3. Transhumance
  4. Climatic Barriers
  5. Defense
  6. Tourist Centers
  7. Construction of Hydro-electric Power
  8. Wind-breaks

 

Disadvantages of Mountains:

  1. Barrier to communication
  2. Hindrance to human habitation
  3. Promotion of soil erosion
  4. Occupation of valuable land
  5. Poor nutrient content in mountain soil.

Related Posts:

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Rocks Of The Earth

Internal Structure Of The Earth

Structure Of The Earth

Calculation Of Distances And Local Time

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