Living Things And Non-Living Things

Living Organisms’ Characteristics Movement: Living organisms possess the ability to relocate their entire bodies or specific body parts, driven by various motives such as searching for food, escaping danger, seeking mates during reproduction, and responding to external stimuli.   Nutrition: The capability of living organisms to consume and obtain the necessary nutrients for life functions […]

Living Organisms’ Characteristics

Movement: Living organisms possess the ability to relocate their entire bodies or specific body parts, driven by various motives such as searching for food, escaping danger, seeking mates during reproduction, and responding to external stimuli.

 

Nutrition: The capability of living organisms to consume and obtain the necessary nutrients for life functions like growth, respiration, and reproduction. Autotrophic nutrition involves the self-production of food through photosynthesis by green plants and some bacteria, while heterotrophic nutrition is exclusive to animals, relying on plant-derived or indirectly acquired food.

 

Respiration: A process in which the cellular oxidation of food substances occurs in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy for all life processes.

 

Excretion: The removal of harmful metabolic waste products from the cells or body of living organisms, essential for preventing damage to body cells. Metabolism encompasses all the chemical processes within the cells of an organism’s body.

 

Growth: The permanent increase in an organism’s body mass or complexity through cell division and differentiation. Adequate feeding supports increased body mass.

 

Irritability/Sensitivity: The ability of an organism to respond to changes in both internal and external stimuli, including heat, light, pain, water, sound, and chemical substances.

 

Reproduction: The capacity of living organisms to generate offspring with characteristics similar to their parents. Reproduction ensures the continuity of a species and occurs through sexual or asexual means.

 

Adaptation: The way in which living organisms adjust to their environments to ensure survival and comfort.

 

Competition: The struggle among living organisms for essential resources like food, light, space, water, and mates to survive and maintain continuous existence.

 

Death: All living things have a finite and definite lifespan, leading to eventual death.

 

Differences Between Plants And Animals

Plants:

  1. Exhibit indefinite and apical growth.
  2. Show a slow response to external stimuli.
  3. Store food as starch (except fungi).
  4. Lack specialized sense organs.
  5. Have no fixed number of parts and continue growing.

 

Animals:

  1. Experience definite and interactive growth.
  2. Demonstrate a fast response to external stimuli.
  3. Store food as glycogen.
  4. Possess specialized sense organs.
  5. Have a fixed number of compact body parts.

 

Microscope (Parts And Functions)

A microscope is an instrument designed for viewing or magnifying organisms smaller than 0.001mm, invisible to the naked eye. It comprises the following parts:

  1. Eye piece lens (ocular, x10): Used for viewing magnified objects.
  2. Body tube: Provides attachment to the eyepiece and revolving nosepiece.
  3. Revolving nosepiece: Selects objective lenses and aligns with the eyepiece.
  4. Low-power objective lens (x4): Lowest magnification for objects.
  5. Medium-power objective lens (x10): Magnifies objects more than the low-power lens.
  6. High-power objective lens (x40): Highest magnification for minute details.
  7. Coarse focus knob: Focuses objects at low power.
  8. Fine adjustment knob: Focuses objects at medium and high power magnifications for sharper focus.
  9. Arm: Lifts or carries the microscope.
  10. Stage: Displays slides and specimens under focus.
  11. Clips: Hold glass slides on the stage.
  12. Hole: Allows light to reach the viewing object.
  13. Condenser: Regulates the amount of light entering the microscope and reaching the object.
  14. Mirror: Collects and directs light rays to the condenser and object.
  15. Base of the microscope: Balances the microscope on the table.

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