Introduction to Phrasal Verbs. Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions

Phrasal Verbs Verbs often combine with adverbial particles to create multi-word or phrasal verbs. The meanings of these expressions cannot be deduced from the individual verb and particles in isolation; instead, they must be understood within the context of the entire phrase.   Examples: Refuse: I turned down the offer. Surrender: Our team refused to […]

Phrasal Verbs

Verbs often combine with adverbial particles to create multi-word or phrasal verbs. The meanings of these expressions cannot be deduced from the individual verb and particles in isolation; instead, they must be understood within the context of the entire phrase.

 

Examples:

  1. Refuse: I turned down the offer.
  2. Surrender: Our team refused to give in to their opponents.
  3. Meet by chance: We ran across an old friend yesterday at Aba.
  4. Cancel: The workers have called off their strike.
  5. Appear: He turned up as soon as we arrived.
  6. Postpone: The election was put off until the next meeting.
  7. Meet by chance: We came across Ledogo in the street.
  8. Experience: He has come through a lot of hardship in life.

Phrasal verbs with double particles have a single meaning; for example, “put up with” means to tolerate (I cannot put up with his insulting behavior).

  1. Reduce: We have been advised to cut down on our expenses.
  2. Go free from: He cannot get away with the crime.
  3. Anticipate: We look forward to your next visit.
  4. Avoid: You have been warned to stay away from the building.

 

Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions

Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

Formation of Adverbs

Many adverbs are formed from adjectives, such as certain – certainly, fortunate – fortunately, careful – carefully, quick – quickly, indoor – indoors, outdoor – outdoors.

Some adverbs indicating direction end in –wards– (e.g., downwards, forwards, backwards).

Some adverbs expressing manner or viewpoint end in –wise– (e.g., clockwise, foodwise, moneywise).

Many other adverbs have no special ending, such as always, early, fast, if, how, quite, often, very, when, hard, late, so, very.

 

Types of Adverbs

Adjuncts: These typically inform us about how, when, where, or to what extent the action of the verb is performed.

Examples:

  1. When: He came at 6 o’clock.
  2. How: She ran fast.

Disjuncts: These usually convey an attitude or viewpoint, often that of the speaker. For instance, “Luckily, she arrived,” “Frankly, we were in the wrong,” “Ola is certainly the best,” “Foolishly, he fell.” Other examples include honestly, seriously, strangely, undoubtedly, happily, fortunately.

 

Conjuncts

Performing a connective function, conjuncts join two sentences or clauses. For instance, “It was a hard task; nevertheless, we performed well.” Another example is “She is hardworking; besides, she is intelligent.” Additional conjuncts include “consequently,” “meanwhile,” “otherwise,” “similarly,” “then,” “alternately,” etc.

 

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that join words or groups of words together.

 

Types Of Conjunctions

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions: Joining words or groups of words of the same grammatical rank. Examples: “and,” “or,” “but.” E.g., “Joy and Jane,” “Bolu or Joy,” “We came but you were not around.”
  2. Correlative Conjunctions: Used in pairs. Examples: “either…or,” “not only…but also,” “both…and,” “neither…nor.” E.g., “Both James and Jerry attended the party,” “She is not only intelligent but also kind.”
  3. Subordinating Conjunctions: Introducing subordinating clauses. Examples: “after,” “because,” “before,” “if,” “in order that,” “since,” “which,” “when,” “who,” “whose,” “that,” etc. E.g., “He left when she was cooking,” “We cooked before they arrived.”

 

Prepositions

Show relationships between two words in a sentence. Examples: “within,” “before,” “at,” “in,” “on,” “over,” etc. Some prepositions go with certain words. E.g., “allergic to,” “arrive in,” “live on,” “stare at,” “charge with,” “comply with,” etc.

Others include: “in agreement with,” “in compliance with,” “in apposition with,” “because of,” “in accordance with,” “with regard to,” “with respect to,” “in spite of,” “by means of,” “along with,” etc.

 

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated With Library

Relevant Words:

  1. Bindery: A place where books are bound or repaired.
  2. Catalogue: A list of items (books) available in a collection, especially in a library.
  3. Entry Card: A card on which details about a book are recorded.
  4. Shelf-guide: Instructions, especially numbers, indicating which books can be found on a particular shelf.
  5. Encyclopedia: A book or set of books containing facts about many different subjects or one particular subject.

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