Importance Of Biology To Agriculture

Plant Classification Plants exhibit diverse forms and types, necessitating classification based on various criteria. The following are the bases for plant classification:   Botanical Classification: The principle of binomial nomenclature subdivides the plant kingdom into divisions, classes, orders, families, genera, and species, based on structures, functions, and evolutionary trends. Plants are generally grouped into three […]

Plant Classification

Plants exhibit diverse forms and types, necessitating classification based on various criteria. The following are the bases for plant classification:

 

Botanical Classification:

The principle of binomial nomenclature subdivides the plant kingdom into divisions, classes, orders, families, genera, and species, based on structures, functions, and evolutionary trends. Plants are generally grouped into three broad categories:

  1. Thallophytes (A)
  2. Bryophytes (B)
  3. Tracheophytes (C)

Tracheophytes further branch into pteridophytes (D) and spermatophytes (E). Spermatophytes include gymnosperms (F) and angiosperms (G), which are further subdivided into dicots (H) and monocots (I).

 

Agricultural Classification:

Plants are classified agriculturally based on:

  1. The obtained product
  2. Useful parts of the plant
  3. Economic importance

Agricultural classifications:

  1. Crops and Weeds
  2. Food Crops and Cash Crops
  3. Root Crops
  4. Cereal Crops
  5. Fruit Crops
  6. Vegetable Crops
  7. Legumes
  8. Spices
  9. Latex Plants
  10. Fibre Plants
  11. Beverage and Drug Plants
  12. Oil Plants

 

Plant Classification Based on Life Cycle and Size:

Plants are categorized based on life cycle (annuals, biennials, and perennials) and size (herbs, shrubs, and trees).

  1. Annuals: Complete their life cycle within a year.
  2. Biennials: Complete their life cycle in two years.
  3. Perennials: Persist over two years, producing yields every season.

 

Size categories include:

  1. Herbs: Small plants with fleshy stems.
  2. Shrubs: Medium-sized plants with woody stems close to the ground.
  3. Trees: Large plants with woody trunks branching at the top.

 

Effects of Agricultural Activities on Ecological Systems:

Various agricultural practices impact ecological systems. Examples include:

  1. Bush Burning: Destroys organic matter, pollutes the atmosphere, kills microorganisms, and exposes soil to erosion.
  2. Overgrazing: Removes vegetative cover, exposes soil to erosion, and affects soil structure.
  3. Tillage: Encourages leaching, changes soil structure, and may lead to loss of fertility.
  4. Deforestation: Reduces water percolation, rainfall, and wildlife population; causes loss of nutrients and humus.
  5. Fertilizer Application: Affects organic matter, soil structure, porosity, and acidity; enhances productivity.
  6. Pesticides/Herbicides: Cause environmental pollution, harm useful plants and animals, reduce target populations, and leave undesirable residues.

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