History Of Computing | Abacus, Napier’s Bone, Pascaline, Leibnitz & Jacquard’s Loom

Early Mechanical Counting/Calculating Devices Abacus Slide rule   Early Electro-Mechanical Counting Devices John Napier bone Blaize Pascal machine Gottfried Leibnitz machine Joseph Jacquard Loom Charles Babbage analytical machine   Early Electronic Counting Devices Herman Hollerith punch card John Von Neumann machine Man has diligently sought improved calculation methods, leading to the development of the computer. […]

Early Mechanical Counting/Calculating Devices

  1. Abacus
  2. Slide rule

 

Early Electro-Mechanical Counting Devices

  1. John Napier bone
  2. Blaize Pascal machine
  3. Gottfried Leibnitz machine
  4. Joseph Jacquard Loom
  5. Charles Babbage analytical machine

 

Early Electronic Counting Devices

  1. Herman Hollerith punch card
  2. John Von Neumann machine

Man has diligently sought improved calculation methods, leading to the development of the computer. Essentially, there are three types of calculating devices: manual, mechanical, and automatic.

 

Abacus

The Abacus, likely the first calculating device, was invented by the Chinese. Still in use in some regions due to its simplicity, it consists of a frame divided into two parts by a horizontal bar with vertical threads, each containing beads. Primarily used for basic addition and subtraction.

 

Napier’s Bone

As the need for better calculating devices arose, Scottish mathematician John Napier introduced Napier’s Bones—a set of eleven rods, each with four sides, used for multiplication. These bone rods, as they were made from bones, facilitated the calculation of products and quotients for large numbers.

 

Pascaline

In 1642, French mathematician Blaize Pascal created the Pascaline, the first mechanical calculating machine. It involved dialing numbers on a series of wheels, with subsequent wheel movements displayed on a dial to show the result. Addition and subtraction were performed conventionally, while division used repeated subtraction and multiplication involved repeated addition.

 

Leibnitz Calculating Machine

In 1694, Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz invented a computer capable of addition, and with modifications, multiplication. The machine featured a special stepped gear mechanism for introducing added digits, which is still in use today.

 

Jacquard’s Loom

Joseph Jacquard’s loom, a pioneering programmed machine, transformed the weaving industry. Controlled by punched cards, it raised threads based on hole patterns. Lines of holes on the card represented the weaving pattern.

 

Punched Card

Between 1920 and 1930, the punched card system evolved, with standard cards divided into 80 columns and 12 rows. Each column could represent a character, with holes punched to signify characters. The punch machine’s keyboard resembled a typewriter.

 

Conclusion

We’ve explored various calculating devices and their operations, highlighting the Abacus as the first calculating device.

 

Number System (Revision)

To effectively use computers, understanding data representation and communication is crucial. Data can be represented in different number systems:

 

  1. Decimal System
  2. Binary System
  3. Octal System
  4. Hexadecimal Number System.

Related Posts:

Data Processing | Meaning, Properties, Cycle & Importance,

Classification Of Computers by Size

Classification Of Computers by Types

Generations Of Computers With Dates

Generations Of Computers

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top