Geographic Information System (GIS)

A system known as a Geographic Information System (GIS) is crafted to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present various types of spatial or geographical data. The acronym GIS is at times employed to denote Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, indicating the academic discipline or profession involving the use of geographic information systems. […]

A system known as a Geographic Information System (GIS) is crafted to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present various types of spatial or geographical data. The acronym GIS is at times employed to denote Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, indicating the academic discipline or profession involving the use of geographic information systems. This field constitutes a significant domain within the broader academic discipline of Geoinformatics.

 

In essence, GIS encompasses any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. The applications of GIS serve as tools enabling users to generate interactive queries, analyze spatial data, edit map information, and showcase the outcomes of these operations. Geographic information science serves as the scientific foundation for understanding geographic concepts, applications, and systems.

 

Concerning data representation, GIS data portrays tangible entities such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, waterways, etc. These real objects can be categorized into two abstractions: discrete objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (like rainfall amounts or elevations).

 

Traditionally, two overarching methods are employed to store data in a GIS for both types of abstractions: raster images and vector mapping references.

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