Geographic Information System (GIS)

A system designed for capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing, managing, and presenting various types of spatial or geographical data is known as a Geographic Information System (GIS).   The use of the acronym GIS extends to Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, referring to the academic discipline or career focused on working with geographic information […]

A system designed for capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing, managing, and presenting various types of spatial or geographical data is known as a Geographic Information System (GIS).

 

The use of the acronym GIS extends to Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, referring to the academic discipline or career focused on working with geographic information systems. This field is a significant domain within the broader academic discipline of Geoinformatics.

 

Broadly speaking, GIS encompasses any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications serve as tools enabling users to generate interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit map data, and showcase the outcomes of these operations. Geographic information science forms the scientific foundation for understanding geographic concepts, applications, and systems.

 

When it comes to data representation, GIS represents real-world objects such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, and waterways. These real objects are categorized into two abstractions: discrete objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (like rainfall amounts or elevations).

 

Traditionally, two broad methods are employed for storing data in a GIS, applicable to both discrete and continuous abstractions: raster images and vector mapping references.

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