Generations Of Computers

Early Computing Generations The initial phase of computing machines, distinct from mechanical counterparts, emerged around 1945. An example from this era is UNIVAC.   First-Generation Computers: Use of vacuum tubes. Large and expensive dimensions. Bulky design. Low retentive memory. Significant heat generation.   Second Generation Replacing vacuum tubes, second-generation computers employed discrete transistors. Though with […]

Early Computing Generations

The initial phase of computing machines, distinct from mechanical counterparts, emerged around 1945. An example from this era is UNIVAC.

 

First-Generation Computers:

  1. Use of vacuum tubes.
  2. Large and expensive dimensions.
  3. Bulky design.
  4. Low retentive memory.
  5. Significant heat generation.

 

Second Generation

Replacing vacuum tubes, second-generation computers employed discrete transistors. Though with limited capability, they represented an advancement over the first generation.

 

Notable features included:

  1. Improved reliability compared to the first generation.
  2. Capability to perform calculations.
  3. More efficient storage.
  4. Lower heat generation.

 

Third Generation

Third-generation computers adopted integrated circuit (IC) technology, Small Scale Integration (SSI), and sophisticated software capabilities like multi-programming, multi-processing, and operating systems as resource managers.

 

Key aspects of third-generation computers encompassed:

  1. Faster input and output.
  2. Increased storage and processing capabilities.
  3. Ability to display pictures and musical sounds.

 

Fourth Generation

Around 1975, fourth-generation computers emerged, characterized by Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technologies. These machines boasted higher capabilities in terms of speed, storage, and overall performance compared to their third-generation counterparts.

 

Fifth Generation

The fifth generation of computers, incorporating Artificial Intelligence (AI), emerged with the goal of building supercomputers capable of performing operations in the range of 10 billion instructions per second. These computers were designed to possess capacities like sight, hearing, and the ability to simulate human thoughts, exemplified by robots.

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Classification Of Computers by Size

Classification Of Computers by Types

Generations Of Computers With Dates

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