Food Commodities | Meat, Types of Meat, Poultry, Types of Chicken

Food commodities are essential ingredients combined to create complete meals, encompassing the various sources of essential nutrients. These commodities comprise: Meat Poultry Game Fish Vegetables Fruits Eggs Milk and milk products (cheese and yogurt) Food additives (coloring and flavoring)   Meat: Meat is the muscle or flesh obtained from animals after slaughtering. It consists of […]

Food commodities are essential ingredients combined to create complete meals, encompassing the various sources of essential nutrients. These commodities comprise:

  1. Meat
  2. Poultry
  3. Game
  4. Fish
  5. Vegetables
  6. Fruits
  7. Eggs
  8. Milk and milk products (cheese and yogurt)
  9. Food additives (coloring and flavoring)

 

Meat:

Meat is the muscle or flesh obtained from animals after slaughtering. It consists of muscle fibers connected by connective tissues and linked to bones by tendons. Fat is embedded in the connective tissues between the fibers.

 

Food Value of Meat:

  1. Protein: A primary nutrient, providing all essential amino acids.
  2. Mineral Elements: Rich in sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, and iron.
  3. Vitamins: Contains B-complex vitamins (e.g., riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinic acid). Fatty meat like pork is high in vitamin A and D.
  4. Fat: Provides fat from connective tissues.
  5. Water: Contains varying percentages of water.

 

Types of Meat:

Different types of animals yield different types of meat, such as beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, ham, bacon, game, lard, suet, and poultry.

 

Cuts of Meat:

Meat from different parts of the animal is categorized into various cuts, including head, neck, chuck, rib-roast, brisket, ox-tongue, ox-tail, leg beef, etc.

 

Appearance of Meat:

  1. White Meat: Tender with less fat and connective tissues (e.g., veal, rabbit, chicken).
  2. Red Meat: Contains more fat and connective tissues (e.g., beef, pork, lamb).

 

Factors to Be Considered When Purchasing Meat:

Consider color, odor, tenderness, lean meat characteristics, moisture, and the appearance of bones in young animals.

 

Factors Affecting Meat Tenderness:

Depends on the age and activities of the animals. Tough meat can be tenderized through mechanical methods, enzymatic action, boiling with seasonings, hanging, or cooking in a pressure cooker.

 

Methods of Cooking Meat:

Boiling, frying, stewing, roasting, grilling.

 

Effects of Heat on Meat:

Cooking makes meat digestible, enhances flavor and appearance, removes indigestible fat, causes shrinkage.

 

Preservation of Meat:

Salting, chilling, freezing, canning, smoking, drying.

 

Poultry:

Meat derived from domesticated birds like chicken, duck, turkey, and guinea fowl. Classified into white and dark meat.

 

Types of Chicken:

Spring chicken, broiler chicken, cockerels and old layers, old hen.

Chicken breeds can be categorized into several types based on their primary use, such as:

1. Egg-laying Breeds: These chickens are specifically bred for high egg production. Some common egg-laying breeds include Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Sussex, and Plymouth Rock.

2. Meat Breeds: These breeds are bred for meat production, characterized by their large size and rapid growth. Examples include Cornish Cross, Jersey Giant, and Orpington.

3. Dual-Purpose Breeds: These breeds are suitable for both egg and meat production. They typically lay a good number of eggs while also providing decent meat yields. Popular dual-purpose breeds include Barred Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red, and Australorp.

4. Exhibition Breeds: These breeds are prized for their appearance and are often shown in poultry exhibitions. While some may also lay eggs or be used for meat, their primary purpose is for display. Examples include Silkies, Polish, and Sebrights.

5. Bantam Breeds: Bantam chickens are miniature versions of standard-sized breeds. They are kept for ornamental purposes, often as pets, and some are also raised for showing. Bantam versions of many standard breeds exist, such as Bantam Wyandotte and Bantam Cochin.

Each type of chicken has its own characteristics, advantages, and suitability for different purposes, whether it be egg production, meat production, exhibition, or simply as pets.

 

Food Values of Poultry:

Rich in proteins, low in fat, contains mineral salts and vitamins.

 

Factors to Consider When Purchasing Poultry:

Consider the legs, weight, eyes, breast, comb and wattles, absence of grains in the crop, age, liveliness, and strength.

 

Preparation and Storage of Poultry:

After killing, allow rigor mortis to pass before preparation. Raw poultry can be treated with lime or lemon to remove strong flavors. Poultry can be stored live or dressed and frozen.

 

Game:

Refers to certain wild birds and animals hunted for food, classified by feathers, fur, and non-furred.

 

Food Value:

Less fatty than poultry or meat, easily digestible, useful for building and repairing body tissues and providing energy.

 

Storage:

Hanging is essential for all game to drain blood and soften the flesh.

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