Food Commodities | Cereals, Grains, Pulses, Legumes, Nuts, Herbs & Spices

Cereals And Grains Cereals, a collective term for plants in the grass family, produce seeds known as grains. Common cereals include rice, corn, millet, barley, oats, and wheat. They serve as staple foods worldwide.   Nutritive Value Of Cereals Carbohydrates: Cereals provide energy through starch. Protein: Whole cereal grains offer a significant amount of second-class […]

Cereals And Grains

Cereals, a collective term for plants in the grass family, produce seeds known as grains. Common cereals include rice, corn, millet, barley, oats, and wheat. They serve as staple foods worldwide.

 

Nutritive Value Of Cereals

  1. Carbohydrates: Cereals provide energy through starch.
  2. Protein: Whole cereal grains offer a significant amount of second-class protein.
  3. Fat: Cereals have low fat content (1-3%), mainly in the germ.
  4. Vitamins and Minerals: Minimal amounts in aleurone, germ, and scutellum layers; yellow maize is rich in carotene (Vit. A).

 

Pulses And Legumes

Legumes are edible seeds of leguminous plants. They are categorized as:

  1. PULSES: Dried seeds of cultivated legumes (e.g., beans, peas, lentils).
  2. OIL SEEDS: Legumes grown for oil content (e.g., groundnuts, soybeans).

 

Nutritive Value Of Legumes

  1. Protein: Legumes are a good protein source, with soya beans providing complete protein.
  2. Carbohydrates: Legumes contain small quantities of carbohydrates.
  3. Vitamins and Minerals: Rich in B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, iron, and calcium.
  4. Fats and Oil: Oil seeds contain a substantial amount of oil.

 

Nuts

Nuts are the reproductive kernel of plants or trees, belonging to the legume family. They are perishable and rich in protein, fat, and minerals.

 

Food Value Of Nuts

Nuts are highly nutritious, serving as essential sources of protein, fat, and minerals. They are vital for vegetarians. Nuts can be challenging to digest.

 

Storage

  1. Nuts should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated area.
  2. Shelled nuts, whether ground, nibbled, flaked, or whole, should be kept in an airtight container.
  3. No mildew signs should be present before storage.

 

Quality and Purchasing Points

  1. Nuts should be of good size and feel heavy for their size.
  2. No signs of mildew should be observed.

 

Uses

Nuts serve various purposes, such as dessert, as main ingredients in vegetarian dishes, and for decorating and flavouring. Examples include Brazil nuts, chestnuts, coconut, walnuts, peanuts, and cashews.

 

Herbs And Spices

Herbs come from plant leaves, while spices are derived from roots, seeds, buds, or bark. They contain volatile essential oils with characteristic flavour and aroma.

 

Classification Of Herbs And Spices

Natural:

  1. African lemon tea
  2. Bitter leaf
  3. Tea bush
  4. African nutmeg
  5. African black pepper
  6. Locust beans
  7. Ginger and garlic
  8. Mustard seeds
  9. Basil
  10. Bay leaves
  11. Parsley
  12. Rosemary
  13. Moringa leaves
  14. Lovage

 

Artificial:

  1. Thyme
  2. Nutmeg
  3. Curry
  4. Cinnamon, etc.

 

Flavourings And Colourings

Food additives enhance flavour, aroma, and colour. Herbs and spices can serve as natural or artificial flavourings and colourings.

 

Flavourings

Natural:

  1. Ginger
  2. Cinnamon
  3. Nutmeg
  4. Pepper
  5. Rosemary
  6. Sesame
  7. Onions
  8. Dried okra
  9. Orange peel
  10. Dry crayfish
  11. Iru (fermented locust beans)
  12. Ogiri (fermented melon), etc.

 

Artificial:

  1. Curry powder
  2. Thyme
  3. Vinegar
  4. Monosodium glutamate (e.g., maggi, knorr, etc.)

 

Colourings

Natural:

  1. Carotene
  2. Chlorophyll
  3. Carotenoids
  4. Turmeric
  5. Jellies
  6. Anthocyanin

 

Artificial:

(No examples provided)

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