Essay Writing: Types Of Essays; Speech Work: Monothongs, Idioms

Essay Writing The craft of essay writing is a form of communication that demands the mastery of essential skills to achieve excellence.   Types of Essays: Narrative Descriptive Expository Argumentative Creative Writing   Report Writing: Formal Report A formal report can encompass various subjects such as a robbery, an accident, meeting proceedings, a work camp, […]

Essay Writing

The craft of essay writing is a form of communication that demands the mastery of essential skills to achieve excellence.


Types of Essays:

  1. Narrative
  2. Descriptive
  3. Expository
  4. Argumentative
  5. Creative Writing


Report Writing: Formal Report

A formal report can encompass various subjects such as a robbery, an accident, meeting proceedings, a work camp, or a petition. Proficiency in using both direct and indirect speech forms is a crucial requirement for report writing. If reporting to a principal, one must adhere to formal letter writing procedures, including providing one’s address.



Class 1W

14th December 2010


The Principal,

Queen of Apostles Secondary School,





Report of the Robbery in Amina Hostel.


(Text of the Report)



Peter Andrew

Prefect (Amina Hostel)


Minutes of the Meetings

Another form of reporting is through minutes of meetings, serving as a record of events and discussions. Every meeting should have a prepared agenda listing items to be considered or discussed. The report should include the club’s name, date, venue, and a list of members.


Speech Work: Monothongs


Monothongs are pure vowels realized as single element sounds, such as /e/ and /i/, while diphthongs are double element vowels, like /ei/ and /iƏ/. There are twelve monothongs:

  1. /i:/ as in seat, cheap, sheep, feel, field, seize, foetus, amoeba, oesophagus.
  2. /I/ as in sit, chip, ship, build, biscuits, English, pretty, many.
  3. /e/ as in set, bread, friend, ate, bury, leopard, many, said, pet, peasant…
  4. /æ/ as in sat, chat, match, catch, plait, marry, mad, chant, dad, mad, pat.
  5. /a:/ as in far, pass, father, calm, heart, bath, farm, bard, path, bath.
  6. /Ɔ/ as in dog, hot, what, was, want, quantity, spot, pot, dot.
  7. /Ɔ:/ as in port, lord, ward, warm, call, talk, soar, roar, law, flaw, sword, sport, sorry.
  8. /u/ as in full, pull, would, book, fool, sugar, cook, book, should.
  9. /u:/ as in fool, pool, coup, move, suit, rule, woo, coup, soup, school.
  10. /Ʌ/ as in fun, cut, tongue, touch, come, love, blood, flood, hunger, son, sun, hunger, worry.
  11. /э:/ as in first, nurse, word, learn, verb, flirt, firm, burn, turn, journey, first, sir, stir, courtesy.
  12. /Ə/ as in again, away, forget, perhaps, police, favor, structure, mother, father, surprise, suppose.



An idiom is an expression with a meaning not deducible from the individual words. For example, “He shed crocodile tears” does not mean crying like a crocodile; it is an expression formed on specific principles.


Examples of idioms and meanings:

  1. To chase one’s shadow – to deceive oneself.
  2. To add insult to injury – to displease and insult someone.
  3. To give an airy nothing – to make useless, empty remarks.
  4. An acid test – a very severe test.
  5. Achilles’ heel – the weak point.
  6. An ample opportunity – various opportunities.
  7. To play to the gallery – to seek cheap popularity.
  8. To throw light – to explain.
  9. To have a light finger – to be disposed to stealing.
  10. To breathe one’s last – to die.
  11. To be armed to the teeth – fully equipped with ammunition.
  12. An apple of discord – a source of disagreement.
  13. To be at crossroads – at an important point in life or career.
  14. To be at sixes and sevens – in a state of perplexity or confusion.
  15. Bed of roses – a comfortable place.
  16. Baptism of fire – experiencing the shock of bullets.
  17. To beat about the bush – to be incoherent and inexact.
  18. Beginning of a new era – a historic period of significant events.
  19. To be in the same boat – experiencing the same things as someone else.
  20. To blaze a trail – to be the first to do something.
  21. To be a bird of a feather – two things or persons that are alike.
  22. To blow one’s trumpet – to praise or advertise oneself.
  23. To burn the candle at both ends – to work hard and play hard.
  24. To burn the midnight oil – to study through the night.
  25. To bury the hatchet – to stop quarreling.
  26. By rule of thumb – unscientific, crude, or non-standard.
  27. To call to a halt – to stop something.
  28. Captain of industry – controller or manager of a big company or organization.
  29. By hook or by crook – by all possible means; at all costs.
  30. To bring someone or something to his/its knees – to humble, trivialize, or make someone sober or dejected.
  31. To build one’s castle in the air – to create hopes that may never be realized.
  32. To be tied to one’s apron strings – to be under someone’s influence.
  33. To be at a loose end – to be idle.
  34. To draw a line – to identify the limit.
  35. To be behind closed doors – confidential; with no outsider present.
  36. To nip a problem in the bud – to stop a problem from growing.
  37. To hold an olive branch – to sue for peace.
  38. A snail’s pace – very slowly.
  39. A wet blanket – one who discourages others.
  40. A stone’s throw – very close.
  41. A backlog – arrears.
  42. To kill someone in cold blood – to kill someone deliberately.
  43. To be at a low ebb – to be in a bad state.
  44. To have first-hand information – to have information from its main source.
  45. To catch one’s eye – to attract someone.
  46. To take the bull by the horns – to face a difficult situation boldly.
  47. To live from hand to mouth – to have no savings.
  48. To water down – to weaken or make less effective.


Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Entertainment

Entertainment comprises various aspects, including football, athletics, theater, and more. Here are some relevant words associated with entertainment:


  1. Exercise of physical strength or speed.



  1. Linesman: Official assisting the referee, deciding whether the ball crosses the line.
  2. Penalty: Punishment for a foul.
  3. Referee: Official regulating the game and ensuring fair play.
  4. Soccer (colloquial): A football game played by two teams.



  1. Actor: Person participating in a play on stage or in a film.
  2. Box-office: Office where theatre seats are booked and tickets paid for.
  3. Cast: Actors of a play.
  4. Curtain-Call: Audience’s call to an actor at the end of the play.
  5. Director: Person directing the performance of a play.
  6. Usher: Person guiding people to their seats.

Related Posts:

Noun, Pronoun, Verb Adjective, Spelling

Kinds Of Sentences | Simple, Multiple, Compound, Complex & Compound-Complex

Spelling: Words Commonly Misspelt

Vocabulary Of Agriculture – General Terms

Noun Phrase And Verb Phrase

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top