Ecology | Biotic Components & Abiotic Components

Ecology involves the examination of living organisms, such as plants and animals, in relation to their surroundings. The field is categorized into two primary branches.   Autecology focuses on studying individual organisms or a single species within its environment. For example, this involves investigating a specific organism and its surroundings.   Synecology, on the other […]

Ecology involves the examination of living organisms, such as plants and animals, in relation to their surroundings. The field is categorized into two primary branches.

 

Autecology focuses on studying individual organisms or a single species within its environment. For example, this involves investigating a specific organism and its surroundings.

 

Synecology, on the other hand, explores the interrelationships among groups of organisms or species coexisting in a particular area. An example would be the examination of diverse organisms in a river in relation to their aquatic environment.

 

Ecological Concepts:

 

  1. Habitat: The natural environment where an organism resides; for instance, a fish living in water, on land, in the air, or among trees.
  2. Environment: The collective external and internal, living and non-living factors that impact an organism.
  3. Ecosystem: The interaction between living components (plants and animals) and the non-living factors of the environment.
  4. Community: A group of organisms comprising different species living together in a specific area or habitat.
  5. Biomes: Recognizable terrestrial ecosystems encompassing plants and animals coexisting naturally.
  6. Biosphere or Ecosphere: The layer of the Earth occupied by living organisms, forming the zone of life on the Earth’s surface.
  7. Lithosphere: The solid outermost layer of the Earth’s crust, consisting of rocks and minerals.
  8. Hydrosphere: The liquid or aquatic part of the Earth, holding water in various forms, including solid (ice), liquid (water), and gases. Examples include lakes, oceans, rivers, and ponds.
  9. Atmosphere: The gaseous layer surrounding the Earth.
  10. Ecological Niche: The specific portion of the habitat occupied by a particular species, representing its functional position in the community.
  11. Population: The total number of organisms of the same species living together in a specific area.

 

Components of Ecosystem:

The ecosystem comprises biotic and abiotic components.

Biotic Components:

  1. Food producers (autotrophs), e.g., green plants, protophyta, and chemosynthetic bacteria.
  2. Food consumers (heterotrophs), including herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, protozoa, and some bacteria.
  3. Decomposers, such as saprophytes like fungi and bacteria, responsible for the decay of dead plants and animals.

 

Abiotic Components:

Non-living factors in the physical environment essential for the organisms’ survival, including soil, water, temperature, humidity, light intensity, air, minerals, salts, etc. These factors influence and are influenced by the biotic components within the ecosystem.

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