Components Of Geographic Information System (GIS)

A system dedicated to capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing, managing, and presenting various spatial or geographical data is known as a Geographic Information System (GIS). The term GIS may also refer to Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, denoting the academic field or profession associated with working on geographic information systems. This falls within the […]

A system dedicated to capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing, managing, and presenting various spatial or geographical data is known as a Geographic Information System (GIS). The term GIS may also refer to Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies, denoting the academic field or profession associated with working on geographic information systems. This falls within the broader discipline of Geoinformatics.

 

In a broader context, GIS encompasses any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications serve as tools enabling users to generate interactive queries, analyze spatial information, modify data on maps, and communicate the outcomes of these operations. Geographic information science forms the scientific foundation for understanding geographic concepts, applications, and systems.

 

Various sources contribute to the pool of geographic data, including satellite images, existing maps, land surveys, socio-economic statistical records, aerial photographs, and fieldwork or surveys.

 

GIS is comprised of five essential components:

  1. Hardware: Includes devices such as keyboards, CPUs, mice, hard disks, etc.
  2. Software: Encompasses applications like Microsoft Word, Corel Draw, Microsoft Excel, computer games, etc.
  3. Data
  4. People: Refers to those involved in designing, maintaining, and developing plans for the system.
  5. Method: A successful GIS operates based on a well-designed plan and established business rules.

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