Climate | Factors, Types, Classifications & Ecosystem

Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions in the atmosphere, typically spanning 30 to 35 years. Factors influencing or determining climate Latitude Altitude Distance from the sea Ocean currents Cloud cover Vegetation Planetary wind Key elements of climate encompass temperature, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, pressure, cloud cover, and sunshine.   Climate is categorized into […]

Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions in the atmosphere, typically spanning 30 to 35 years.

Factors influencing or determining climate

  1. Latitude
  2. Altitude
  3. Distance from the sea
  4. Ocean currents
  5. Cloud cover
  6. Vegetation
  7. Planetary wind

Key elements of climate encompass temperature, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, pressure, cloud cover, and sunshine.

 

Climate is categorized into different types:

Hot Climate:

    1. Equatorial Climate: Found within 50 degrees North and South of the equator, including areas like the Amazon Basin, Zaire Basin, and the Coast of West Africa.
    2. Tropical Continental (Sudan) Climate: Located between 5 to 20 degrees North and South of the equator, covering regions like Central America, North Western South America, West Africa, and parts of India and Southeast Asia.

 

Cold Climate:

  1. Polar Climate: Found around 90 degrees North and South of the Equator, especially around the poles, including Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica.
  2. Tundra Climate: Located around 60 to 90 degrees North and South of the equator, particularly around the Arctic and Antarctic circles, covering areas like the coastal strip of Greenland, Northern Canada, Alaska, parts of Eurasia, and Antarctica.

 

Desert Climate:

  1. Hot Desert Climate: Within latitudes 15 to 30 degrees North and South of the equator, encompassing regions like the Sahara, Arabian, Iranian, Thar, Namib, Kalahari, Great Australian, and Atacama deserts.
  2. Cold Desert Climate: Within latitudes 45 to 60 degrees North and South of the equator, including Eurasia, North America, and South America.

 

Other Notable Climate Types:

  1. Warm Temperate Climate Western Margin (Mediterranean Type): Located between 30 to 45 degrees North and South of the equator, covering areas such as North Africa, South West South Africa, Central Chile, California, Southern Australia, France, Spain, and Italy.
  2. Warm Temperate Climate Eastern Margin (China Type): Situated between 20 to 40 degrees North and South of the equator, including China, the U.S.A, Mexico, Natal in South Africa, and Australia.
  3. Cool Temperate Climate Western Margin (British Type): Found between 45 to 60 degrees North and South of the equator, covering regions like Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and British Columbia.
  4. Cool Temperate Climate Eastern Margin (Laurentian Type): Located between 40 and 50 degrees North of the equator, including the Northeastern part of North America, Northeast Canada, and Northern Asia.

 

Classification Of Climate

Greek Climatic Classification System

The Greek system of climate classification, one of the earliest, was established by the Greeks and is based on temperature. According to this system, the world is divided into three climatic zones:

  1. Torrid zone: Situated within the tropics, characterized by consistently high temperatures throughout the year.
  2. Temperate zone: Found between the torrid and frigid zones, exhibiting moderate temperatures.
  3. Frigid zone: Located around the polar regions, this zone experiences very cold temperatures with ice-caps present for a significant part of the year.

 

Koppen Climate Classification System

Koppen’s climate classification system, based on temperature and rainfall, identifies five major climatic groups corresponding to principal vegetation groups. These groups are represented by capital letters:

A – Tropical Rainy Climate

Environmental Intervention

Environment is the overall surroundings or medium of any organism in a given area, encompassing physical surroundings, climatic factors, and other living organisms.

 

Spheres of The Environment

The Earth’s environment is categorised into four spheres:

  1. Lithosphere: Solid portion containing rocks, sand, soil, minerals, etc.
  2. Hydrosphere: Liquid portion including rivers, lakes, and oceans.
  3. Atmosphere: Gaseous portion with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, ozone, etc.
  4. Biosphere: Area where plants and animals are found, with these spheres being interconnected and interdependent.

 

Ecosystem

An ecosystem is defined as a community of plants and animals living together in harmony and interacting with their physical environment, representing the relationship between living and non-living elements.

 

Components of Ecosystem

The ecosystem consists of two main components:

(a) Abiotic (non-living) component: Includes soil, water, gases, sunlight, etc.

(b) Biotic component: The living part, encompassing plants and animals, further divided into autotrophs, heterotrophs, and decomposers.

 

Interdependence Within the Ecosystem

Interdependence characterizes the relationships between ecosystem components, ensuring they cannot exist in isolation. Interdependence occurs within abiotic components, between abiotic components, and between biotic and abiotic components.

 

Environmental Balance

Environmental balance involves recycling matter and energy flow within an ecosystem to ensure continuous availability. This balance is maintained through processes such as the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, mineral nutrient cycle, and food chain/food web.

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