Central Processing Unit (CPU) | Memory Unit, Control Unit & ALU

The primary function of the CPU is to execute mathematical computations on binary numbers, yet there are additional purposes for utilizing the CPU. It comprises various hardware components like the motherboard and circuits.   A central processing unit (CPU) represents the hardware within a computer responsible for executing a computer program’s instructions by conducting fundamental […]

The primary function of the CPU is to execute mathematical computations on binary numbers, yet there are additional purposes for utilizing the CPU. It comprises various hardware components like the motherboard and circuits.

 

A central processing unit (CPU) represents the hardware within a computer responsible for executing a computer program’s instructions by conducting fundamental arithmetic, logical, control, and input/output operations within the system.

 

Components of The CPU

As depicted in the image above, the CPU consists of the following:

  1. The control unit
  2. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

 

Memory Unit

Two common components of a CPU are the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which executes arithmetic and logical operations, and the Control Unit (CU), which retrieves instructions from memory, and decodes and executes them, involving the ALU when necessary.

 

The Control Unit (CU)

The control unit is a constituent of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that guides the processor’s operations. It instructs the computer’s memory, arithmetic/logic unit, and input/output devices on how to respond to program instructions.

 

By furnishing timing and control signals, the control unit directs the operation of other units. The CU (Control Unit) manages all computer resources, dictating the data flow between the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and other devices. In contemporary computer designs, the control unit typically resides internally in the CPU, maintaining its overarching role and operation.

 

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

An ALU performs fundamental arithmetic and logic operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and logical comparisons such as NOT, AND, and OR. Logical operations involve comparing values like numbers, letters, and special characters, and relational operations (=,<,>) describe the comparison operations executed by the ALU.

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