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Better Health

Control Of Harmful Micro-Organisms The management of harmful microbes involves employing physical agents/processes and chemical agents or antibiotics to achieve removal, growth inhibition, or killing. Common methods to control harmful microorganisms for the maintenance of good health include: High and low temperature: Boiling or heating food, pasteurizing milk, sterilizing medical instruments, and freezing food to […]

Control Of Harmful Micro-Organisms

The management of harmful microbes involves employing physical agents/processes and chemical agents or antibiotics to achieve removal, growth inhibition, or killing. Common methods to control harmful microorganisms for the maintenance of good health include:

  1. High and low temperature: Boiling or heating food, pasteurizing milk, sterilizing medical instruments, and freezing food to minimize microbial activity.
  2. Covering food to prevent contact with vectors and airborne pathogens.
  3. Antibiotics (e.g., amphiclox, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline) to combat bacteria causing diseases.
  4. Antiseptics (e.g., Dettol, Milton, chlorine water, medicated soap, hydrogen peroxide) for destroying or inhibiting microorganisms.
  5. Disinfectants (e.g., sanitas, Lysol, izal) for stronger antiseptic action in hospitals, warehouses, and public buildings; requiring dilution for gentleness on the skin.
  6. High salinity (salting): Using salt to preserve food and destroy microorganisms by plasmolysis.
  7. Dehydration: Drying foodstuffs like fish and meat to prevent microbial growth.
  8. Sanitation: Maintaining cleanliness in both the body and the environment.
  9. Isolation of infected persons: Preventing the spread of infectious diseases by isolating affected individuals.
  10. Balanced diet: Consuming a well-balanced diet daily to promote good health and enhance the body’s resistance to diseases.

 

Vectors And Ways Of Controlling Vectors

A vector, an animal transmitting disease-causing organisms, can be controlled through various measures:

Control of mosquitoes:

    1. Draining swamps.
    2. Clearing bushes around houses.
    3. Sleeping in mosquito-net-protected rooms.
    4. Insecticide spraying in swamps or rooms.
    5. Applying oil on stagnant water.
    6. Using insect repellent on the body.
    7. Burying broken pots and cans.

 

Control of houseflies:

  1. Insecticide spraying.
  2. Eliminating breeding spots.
  3. Using poison baits.
  4. Closing pit toilets.
  5. Covering food.
  6. Maintaining a clean environment.

 

Maintenance Of Good Health

To maintain good health, practices such as proper refuse disposal, sewage disposal, protection of water, and protection of food are essential:

Refuse disposal:

  1. Provision of dust bins.
  2. Burning refuse in incinerators.
  3. Dumping refuse in isolated areas.
  4. Burying refuse in sanitary landfills.

 

Sewage disposal:

  1. Use of pit toilets.
  2. Septic tanks.
  3. Community treatment processes.

 

Protection of water:

  1. Addition of alum.
  2. Boiling before drinking.
  3. Filtration on cooling.
  4. Addition of chlorine.
  5. Storage in clean containers.

 

Protection of food:

  1. Refrigeration or freezing.
  2. Proper cooking.
  3. Inspection of food for public consumption.
  4. Handwashing before and after eating.
  5. Canning for preservation.
  6. Keeping the food preparation environment clean.
  7. Avoiding exposure to flies and other microorganisms.

 

Roles Of Health Organizations

The administration of health services in Nigeria involves various organizations, including:

  1. Ministry of Health.
  2. University Teaching Hospitals.

International health organizations play a crucial role in disease prevention and providing aid to needy areas. Some of these organizations include:

  1. World Health Organization (WHO)
  2. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
  3. International Red Cross (IRC)
  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

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