Basic Concepts Of Government 3

Communalism Communalism denotes a socio-political structure where land, the primary means of production, is collectively owned. In a communal society, members collectively pursue shared objectives, and assets like land are owned communally, and distributed equally among members. This system prioritizes resource utilization for the collective benefit of all.   Features of Communalism: Absence of class […]

Communalism

Communalism denotes a socio-political structure where land, the primary means of production, is collectively owned. In a communal society, members collectively pursue shared objectives, and assets like land are owned communally, and distributed equally among members. This system prioritizes resource utilization for the collective benefit of all.

 

Features of Communalism:

  1. Absence of class systems; collaboration is the norm.
  2. Collective ownership of property.
  3. Prohibition of private property ownership for individuals.
  4. Shared cultural identity among members.
  5. Barter trade as the primary means of exchange.
  6. Spirit of cooperation prevails in activities like building houses and farming.
  7. Labor is not commodified, leading to the absence of exploitation.
  8. Emphasis on collective interests over individual goals.
  9. Communities operate autonomously with distinct identities.

 

Feudalism

Feudalism is a governance system centred around land ownership and control, prevalent in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. Kings and Emperors owned and controlled land, granting it to vassals who, in return, provided services or fought on behalf of the king. Industrialization eventually led to the demise of feudalism, giving rise to capitalist influences and transforming the relationship between landowners and labourers.

 

Features of Feudalism:

  1. Grounded in land ownership as the governing principle.
  2. Lands owned and controlled by kings or emperors.
  3. Serfs worked and served the king in exchange for land use.
  4. Lords were responsible for protecting the serfs.
  5. Feudal tenants are obligated to offer military assistance to the landowner.
  6. Lords held legislative, military, executive, and judicial power over vassals.
  7. Class system: Barons or landowners and serfs or vassals without land.
  8. Persistent state of war and insecurity.

 

Merits of Feudalism:

  1. Paved the way for the development of capitalism.
  2. Established order and prevent anarchy.
  3. Provided serfs with a certain level of security.
  4. Granted freed slaves limited freedom through contracts with a lord.
  5. Cultivated self-reliance and a love for personal freedom among large landlords.

 

Demerits of Feudalism:

  1. Serfs faced brutal oppression and exploitation.
  2. Fueled the rise of autocratic leaders with unchecked power.
  3. Loyalty and obedience directed towards landowners, not the central government.
  4. State division into semi-independent entities hindered cohesive governance.
  5. Absence of a national government structure.

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