Basic Concepts in Government 5

Fascism Fascism represents an ideology centered on the notions of force and absolute obedience to authority. It is considered a philosophy, principle, and structure of an assertive nationalist and anti-communist dictatorship.   Originating as a movement in Italy in 1922, fascism reached its culmination under Benito Mussolini in 1943. This ideology denounces both capitalism and […]

Fascism

Fascism represents an ideology centered on the notions of force and absolute obedience to authority. It is considered a philosophy, principle, and structure of an assertive nationalist and anti-communist dictatorship.

 

Originating as a movement in Italy in 1922, fascism reached its culmination under Benito Mussolini in 1943. This ideology denounces both capitalism and socialism, eschews peace, democracy, and the rule of law, instead extolling the virtues of war.

 

Key Features of Fascism:

  1. Advocates aggressive nationalism.
  2. Elevates the political leader to supreme and revered status.
  3. Grants the leader the authority to enact all laws, with rights and authority derived solely from them.
  4. Suppresses opposition through force when necessary.
  5. Imposes absolute control over citizens’ lives, including aspects such as religion and education.
  6. Restricts political participation to the elite, excluding the majority.
  7. Rejects popular views, the law of God, and religion, glorifying war as the path to peace.

 

Nazism

Nazism, a form of totalitarianism, was practiced in Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945. This political ideology staunchly asserts the superiority of the German race over the individual.

 

Features of Nazism:

  1. Believes the leader is always right, controlling all governmental powers.
  2. Permits only one political party – the Nazist political party.
  3. Political party leaders automatically hold government leadership positions.
  4. Ensures government ownership and control of mass media.
  5. Suppresses opposition, prohibiting labor unions and other pressure groups.
  6. Centrally controls the economy.
  7. Disregards the rule of law and fundamental human rights.
  8. Utilizes force and brutality as primary tools of oppression.

 

Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism, synonymous with Authoritarianism, is a governmental form marked by absolute control over individuals, ideas, and properties. This system allows only one political party to exist and govern within the state.

 

Features of Totalitarianism:

  1. Features a supreme authority controlling all aspects of governance.
  2. Allows for only one dominant political party, eliminating any room for opposition.
  3. Employs force and brutality to govern the masses.
  4. Absence of the rule of law under an autocratic government.
  5. Government control over mass media.
  6. Enforces a single ideology and philosophy.

Examples of Totalitarianism include the Nazist government in Germany and the Fascist rule in Italy.

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