Agricultural Ecology | Meaning, Biotic, Abiotic, Agro-Ecosystem

Meaning Of Agricultural Ecology Agricultural Ecology is the exploration of the relationships between crop plants, farm animals, and their surroundings. Derived from the Greek word “Oikos,” meaning home or dwelling place, it encompasses the study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment.   Agricultural Ecology is categorized into: Autecology Synecology   Autecology involves […]

Meaning Of Agricultural Ecology

Agricultural Ecology is the exploration of the relationships between crop plants, farm animals, and their surroundings. Derived from the Greek word “Oikos,” meaning home or dwelling place, it encompasses the study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment.

 

Agricultural Ecology is categorized into:

  1. Autecology
  2. Synecology

 

Autecology involves studying individual organisms or single species in their environment, such as examining a single cattle and its surroundings. On the other hand, Synecology explores the interrelationships between groups of organisms or species living together in a specific area, like studying different fishes in a fish pond in relation to their aquatic environment.

 

The term “Ecosystem” refers to a community of crop plants and farm animals functioning together with their non-living environment, comprising living factors (plants and animals) interacting with non-living factors in a farm environment.

 

Components Of Farm Ecosystem

The farm ecosystem comprises two primary components:

  1. Biotic (living) components
  2. Abiotic (non-living) components

 

Biotic Components:

Living things, including crop plants and farm animals, are grouped into two classes: Autotrophism and Heterotrophism.

 

(i) Autotrophism: Organisms, mainly crop plants, capable of synthesizing their own food through photosynthesis, using sunlight or chemicals.

 

(ii) Heterotrophism: Organisms, mainly farm animals, relying on plants directly or indirectly for food; herbivores or primary consumers feed directly on green plants.

 

Abiotic Components:

Non-living things in the ecosystem include climatic factors (rainfall, temperature, wind, humidity, and sunlight), inorganic materials and nutrients (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus), edaphic factors (soils, rocks, topography), and other factors (dust, storm, fire, and water).

 

Interaction Among Agro-Ecosystem Components In Farm Settings

In Mono-cropping/Sole Cropping

Mono-cropping involves cultivating a single type of crop on a farmland at a particular time. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors include nutrient absorption from the soil, water intake, and carbon dioxide absorption for photosynthesis.

 

In Mixed Cropping System

Mixed cropping involves growing two or more crops on the same piece of land simultaneously. Interactions include nutrient addition to the soil by crops like cowpea and decomposition of crop leaves, enriching the soil.

 

In Mixed Farming

Mixed farming integrates crop cultivation and animal rearing on the same farmland. Interactions involve grass or crop residues serving as animal food, animal dung acting as organic manure, and crop residues contributing nutrients to the soil through decomposition.

Related Posts:

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Post-Planting Operations

Planting Operations

Cultural Practices

Classification Of Crops

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