Affix (Affixation)

Affix: An element added to a base or root word to create another word, either in the form of a prefix or a suffix. A prefix is an affix added to the beginning of a word, as seen in “audio” in “audio-visual,” serving as both a prefix and an affix. A suffix is an affix […]

Affix: An element added to a base or root word to create another word, either in the form of a prefix or a suffix.

A prefix is an affix added to the beginning of a word, as seen in “audio” in “audio-visual,” serving as both a prefix and an affix.

A suffix is an affix added to the end of a word, exemplified by “aholic” in “workaholic,” functioning as both a suffix and an affix. Common prefixes and their meanings include:

  1. a-: on (e.g., afloat, above)
  2. ab-: away, from (e.g., absolve, abnormal)
  3. ante-: before (e.g., ante-natal, ante-room)
  4. anti-: against (e.g., anti-aircraft, anti-body)
  5. con-: with, together (e.g., confederation, conjunction)
  6. de-: down, below, opposite (e.g., defreeze, depress)
  7. di-: two, twice, double (e.g., disyllabic, detractive)
  8. en-: in, make (e.g., enclose, enlarge)
  9. bi-: two, twice, double (e.g., bicycle, bilingual)
  10. ex-: out, away (e.g., export, exhale)
  11. ex-: former (e.g., ex-wife, ex-student)
  12. fore-: before (e.g., forehead, forever)
  13. hyper-: more, greater (e.g., hyperactive, hypertension)
  14. inter-: between, among (e.g., international, interchange).

 

Examples of suffixes include:

  1. Some suffixes convert words into adjectives, such as -any, -evy, -en, -ish, -less, -ly, -ous, -ic, like, -y, -ful (e.g., dangerous, useless).
  2. Suffixes that transform words into verbs include -ing, -ed, -ude, -em, -ure, -ise, -ize, -yse (e.g., nationalize, lighten).
  3. Suffixes that turn words into nouns include -er, -or, -ar, -er, -ship, -hood, -ness, -ance, -ism, -dom, -tion, -ity, -ure (e.g., punishment, friendship, childhood).

A root is the smallest or basic part of a word, combined with a prefix or suffix. Examples include happy – unhappy, solve – dissolve, and come – welcome. Suffixes can also be added to these words, creating variations like happiness, solvent, and comes/comedy.

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